(Mishnah): The only differences between one who is Mudar [forbidden due to a vow] from benefit from Reuven and one who is Mudar not to eat from him are that the former may not walk on Reuven's property or borrow vessels not used for food (which are not normally rented), whereas the latter is permitted (in a place where such Kelim are not rented).
(Gemara) Inference: Neither may borrow vessels used for food.
Question: Why can't he walk on Reuven's property? People do not mind!
Answer: Our Mishnah is like R. Eliezer, who forbids Vitur (benefits that people give freely) to one who vowed not to benefit.
(Mishnah): The only difference between Nedarim and Nedavos (vows to bring Korbanos) is that there is Acharayos for Nedarim (one must bring a substitute if the animal cannot be offered) but not for Nedavos.
(Gemara) Inference: They are the same regarding 'Bal Te'acher' (the Lav against delaying bringing a Korban).
(Mishnah): A Neder is when a person says 'Alai' (it is upon me to bring an) Olah; 'this is an Olah' is a Nedavah. If (an animal Hukdash to fulfill) a Neder is stolen, lost or dies, the person must bring another animal; regarding a Nedavah he is exempt.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): We learn from "V'Nirtza Lo Lechaper Alav." There is Acharayos only for what is (incumbent) upon a person.
Question: How is this learned from the verse?
Answer (R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi): Once he says 'Alai', it is as if he bore it on his shoulders.
HALACHOS OF A ZAV
Mishnah: The only difference between a Zav (a man who had emissions from his Ever) who saw two emissions and one who saw three is that the latter must bring a Korban.
(Gemara) Inference: They are the same to be Metamei Mishkav and Moshav (vessels special for sitting or lying on), and the need to count seven clean days (i.e. without emissions) to become Tahor.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Simai): The Torah calls a Zav Tamei after two sightings, and again after three sightings. We infer that after two sightings he is Tamei, and after three he brings a Korban.
Suggestion: Perhaps two sightings make him Tamei, but he is exempt from a Korban, and three sightings obligate a Korban, but he is Tahor!
Rejection: This is illogical, for before he sees three he sees two, and he is already Tamei!
Suggestion: Perhaps after two sightings he brings a Korban, but he is Tahor, and after three sighting he is Tamei!
Rejection (Beraisa): "The Kohen will atone for him... mi'Zovo (from his emission)" - some Zavim bring Korbanos (those who saw three times), and others (who saw only twice) do not.
Suggestion: Perhaps one who saw twice brings, but one who saw three times does not!
Rejection: One who saw three times already saw twice.
We need both the teaching of R. Simai and "mi'Zovo":
Without "mi'Zovo", we would have thought like suggestion (g);
Without R. Simai's teaching, we would not know how many sightings obligate a Korban.
Question: If mi'Zovo teaches this, what do we learn from "V'Chi Yithar ha'Zav mi'Zovo"!
Answer (Beraisa): "V'Chi Yithar ha'Zav" - when his emissions will cease;
"Mi'Zovo" - not from his emissions and Tzara'as (he need not become Tahor from his Tzara'as before counting the days to become Tahor from Zivah);
(The adjacency of) "mi'Zovo v'Siper" teaches that a Zav who saw two emissions needs to count seven clean days.
Question: We know this without a verse!
Since he is Metamei Mishkav and Moshav, he certainly (has full Tum'as Zav and) needs seven clean days!
Answer: Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom disproves this assertion. She is Metamei Mishkav and Moshav, but doesn't need seven clean days! Therefore, we need the verse.
Question (Rav Papa): Here (k:2), mi'Zovo includes a two-emission Zav, but above (h) it excludes a two-emission Zav!
Answer (Abaye): Here this is not needed to exclude, for there is no (other) source to require seven clean days;
We can't learn from Tum'as Mishkav and Moshav, like we said above (m).
Question: Perhaps mi'Zovo teaches that he need not become Tahor from his Tzara'as first!
Answer: If only that was to be learned, the Torah would have said only "V'Chi Yithar ha'Zav" (ha'Zav would be extra to teach this);
Mi'Zovo is extra, to teach that after two sightings, seven clean days are required.
METZORA MUSGAR AND MUCHLAT
(Mishnah): The only differences between a Metzora Musgar (quarantined) and Muchlat (absolute) are tearing clothing and letting his hair grow:
The only differences between Taharah of a Musgar and a Muchlat are birds and shaving.
(Gemara) Inference: They are the same regarding being sent (from the city) and Tum'ah.
Question: What is the source that a Musgar is exempt from tearing clothing and letting his hair grow?
Answer #1 (Rav Shmuel bar Yitzchak): We learn from "V'Tiharo ha'Kohen... v'Taher". The Torah avoids the future (va'Yetaher), to teach that from the onset he was Tahor (exempt) from tearing clothing and letting his hair grow.
Objection (Rava): It also says "v'Taher" regarding a Zav - regarding what could we say that he was always Tahor?!
Rather, there it must mean that now he is Tahor from being Metamei Klei Cheres through moving them. Even if he will see another emission, he is not retroactively Metamei (Klei Cheres that he moved in the meantime, even though he is retroactively Metamei Mishkav u'Moshav and people),
Also regarding a Metzora, perhaps it teaches that even if the Tzara'as will return, he is not Metamei retroactively through Bi'ah (entering a house).
Answer #2 (Rava): We learn from "Veha'Tzaru'a Asher Bo ha'Nega" - tearing clothing and letting hair grow only apply to one whose Tzara'as depends on his body (a Muchlat; who is Tamei until the Tzara'as goes away).
It excludes a Musgar, for his Tum'ah depends on days (he can become Tahor after seven days as long as there is no Siman Tum'ah, even if his Tzara'as is still there).
Question (Abaye): If so, you should similarly expound "Kol Yemei Asher ha'Nega Vo" to exempt a Musgar from being sent outside the city!
Suggestion: Perhaps this is true!
Rejection (Mishnah): The only differences between a Musgar and a Muchlat are tearing clothing and letting his hair grow;
Inference: They are the same regarding being sent (from the city) and Tum'ah.
Answer (Rava): "Kol Yemei is extra to teach that also a Musgar is sent from the city.
Question: What is the source that a Musgar does not need birds and shaving to become Tahor?
Answer (Abaye): "... Nirpa Nega ha'Tzara'as... " - birds and shaving are only needed for one whose Taharah depends on healing of the Tzara'as (this excludes a Musgar, whose Taharah depends on days).
LANGUAGES IN WHICH SEFORIM, TEFILIN AND MEZUZOS MAY BE WRITTEN
(Mishnah): The only way in which Seforim differ from Tefilin and Mezuzos is that Seforim may be written in any language, but Tefilin and Mezuzos may be written only in Ashuris (Hebrew).
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says that the only other language for Seforim is Yevanis.
(Gemara) Inference: All of them must be sewn with sinews, and they are Metamei hands.
Contradiction (Beraisa): Kisvei ha'Kodesh are not Metamei hands if any of the following apply:
Mikra (text that should be in Hebrew) was written in Targum (Arameic);''
Targum was written in Hebrew;
The letters were written Ivri (a different style of writing Hebrew letters).
They are Metamei hands only if they are written Ashuris (our character set for Hebrew), in a Sefer, and with ink. (Our Mishnah allows any language for Seforim!)