KIDUSHIN 51 - Dedicated by a Talmid of Rabbi Kornfeld in Chicago. May Hashem bestow upon him and his wife Berachah in all their endeavors, and Yiddishe Nachas and joy from their dear children.

1)

THE ACTION PRECEDES THE CONDITION (Yerushalmi Halachah 5 Daf 27b)

משנה המקדש שתי נשים בשוה פרוטה או אשה אחת בפחות משוה פרוטה אף על פי ששילח סבלונות לאחר מיכן אינה מקודשת שמחמת קידושין הראשונים שילח

(a)

(Mishnah): If a man betrothed two women with one Perutah or one woman with less than a Perutah, even if he later sent her gifts, she is not betrothed, as he sent them relying on the original Kidushin.

וכן קטן שקידש:

(b)

This also applies to child who betrothed (and later sent gifts when he was already an adult).

גמרא תני וכולן שבעלו קנו.

(c)

(Gemara - Beraisa): In all of these cases, if he later had relations with her, he acquires her (through those relations).

ר' שמעון ברבי יהודה אומר משום רבי שמעון וכולן שבעלו לא קנו שלא היתה בעילתו אלא לשום קידושין הראשונים אם קנו רבי חייה בשם רבי יוחנן קנו לחומרין

(d)

R. Shimon ben R. Yehudah citing R. Shimon: In all of these cases, if he later had relations with her, he does not acquire her, as his act of relations was done relying on the original Kidushin. Even according to the 1st opinion, R. Chiya citing R. Yochanan says that she is given the stringencies of being betrothed.

רבי חייה בשם רבי יוחנן כל תניי שהוא מעשה מתחילתו מקודשת לחומרין.

(e)

R. Chiya citing R. Yochanan: Any case where the action preceded the condition (as learned from the condition made to the Bnei Gad and Bnei Reuven, that they would be able to live in the Transjordan area on condition that they would come to conquer the Land of Israel) is given the stringencies of betrothal.

רבי מנא בעא קומי דרב יודן מאן תנא כל תנאי שהוא מעשה מתחילתו תנייו בטל דלא כרבי שמעון.

(f)

R. Mana to R. Yudan: This tana, who holds that any stipulation that began with the action is negated, is unlike Shimon.

רבי יודן בשם רבי יוחנן מקודשת לחומרין.

(g)

R. Yudan citing R. Yochanan: Even R. Shimon agrees that she must be stringent as if she is betrothed.

היך עבידא

(h)

Question: What would be an example of stating the action before the stipulation?

הרי אני מקדשך בבעילה על מנת שירדו גשמים ירדו גשמים מקודשת ואם לאו אינה מקודשת.

(i)

Answer: "I am betrothing you through having relations on condition that it will rain". If it rained, she is betrothed; if not, she is no betrothed.

רבי חייה בשם רבי יוחנן בקידושי מלוה לחומרין

(j)

R. Chiya citing R. Yochanan: If one betrothed with a loan, she must be stringent as if she is betrothed.

ובקרקעות לא קנה

1.

If a lender said to a field owner, "Sell me your field instead of the money that you owe me", he does not acquire the field.

ובמטלטלין אין מוסרין אותו למי שפרע

2.

If a lender said, "Sell me this garment with the money that you owe me", if the lender retracted, he is not cursed with "Mi Shepara" since no money changed hands for this sale.

ביקש להעמיד לו מקחו

3.

Question: If the lender (buyer) wished to continue with the deal but the seller (borrower) wished to retract, what is the law?

נישמעינה מן הדא והרי לך אצלי בהן יין ויין אין לו. הא אם יש לו יין הרי זה חייב.

4.

Answer (Mishnah in Maseches Bava Metzia): "(In discussion the prohibition of taking interest) Reuven bought a year's supply of wheat according to the price that a kur of wheat was worth a golden dinar (which is 25 silver dinar) and the value of wheat increased to 30 silver dinar. Reuven then said, "Give me my wheat (according to the lower value) as I would like to buy wine with it". Shimon replied, "I am willing to view the wheat that I owe you according to the higher price (as if you are now lending me the difference) and I accept to give you wine according to the wheat that I owe". If Shimon does not have wine, it is a Rabbinical prohibition of taking interest." But if he has wine, Reuven may buy from him (since it is considered a regular transaction, without interest. Here also, if the seller has it, it is acquired by the buyer and he must be supplied with it.

תני רבי חייא אם יש לו יין חייב ליתן לו.

i.

Support - Beraisa (R. Chiya): If he has wine, he must give it to him.

רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק שלח אמר לתמן הוון ידעין דהורי רבי חייה בשם רבי יוחנן קידושי מלוה לחומרין ובאיש לרבי זעירא [דף כח עמוד א] למה בגין דהוון מחמרין וקליל עליהון.

(k)

R. Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak sent a message to Bavel, saying, "You know that R. Chiya rules in the name of R. Yochanan, that if one betrothed with a loan, she must be stringent as if she is betrothed. You also know that R. Zeira was unhappy with this. Why? Originally they were stringent as if it is a full Kidushin and now they are lenient to only view it as a doubtful one.

אמר רבי יוסה בי רבי בון בקולא הוון נהיגין ואחמר עליהון שאם בא אחר וקידשה תפשו בה קידושין.

(l)

R. Yosa bei R. Bun: On the contrary, they were behaving leniently and I was stringent to say that since we view it as a betrothal as a stringency, if another man came and betrothed her, that Kidushin would take effect.

אמר ר' יודן בי רבי חנן ערוה שאינה ערוה תופש את שאינה ערוה:

(m)

R. Yudan bei R. Chanan: If there is a case of a possible prohibition of Ervah (a possible close relative upon whom Kidushin does not take effect), be stringent to view the person as a non-Ervah, by saying that Kidushin does take effect.

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