ONE WHO DOES NOT GIVE ENOUGH TZEDAKAH (cont.)
Question: Nakdimon ben Guryon gave Tzedakah!
(Beraisa): When Nakdimon ben Guryon walked to the Beis Medrash, they would spread silk garments before him, and the poor would take them!
Answer #1: He did this for his own honor.
Answer #2: He did not give as much as one of his wealth should give.
This is like people say, people load up a camel according to its strength.
R. Elazar bar R. Tzadok: I swear, I saw her gathering barley amidst the hoof-prints of horses in Ako;
"If you do not know... go in the footsteps of the flock and graze Gediyosayich (your goats)" - we read this Geviyosayich. (If you will not observe the Torah, your bodies will need to graze (eat) from the footsteps of animals.)
ONE WHO BRINGS IN GOLD
(Rav Shemen bar Aba): If she brings in gold, we appraise it, and he writes in the Kesuvah the appraised value.
Question (Beraisa #1): Gold is like Kelim.
Suggestion: Gold is like silver Kelim that depreciate (and he writes only four fifths of the appraised value).
Answer #1: No, they are like gold Kelim that do not depreciate.
Question #1: If so, it should say that they are like its Kelim!
Question #2 (Beraisa #2): Gold is like Kelim. Gold Dinarim are like money;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, in a place where they are not commonly changed, they are appraised, and they are (written in the Kesuvah) at their true value.
Question: About which law does R. Shimon comment?
He cannot comment on the latter law. The first Tana would not equate gold Dinarim to money in a place where one cannot convert the Dinarim, for one cannot spend them!
Answer: He comments on the first law. The first Tana says that gold is like silver Kelim, and R. Shimon says that it is like gold coins in a place where they are not changed!
Answer #1 (to Question #2): Really, R. Shimon comments on the latter law. The case is, one can spend the Dinarim with difficulty;
The first Tana says, since one can spend them, he writes in the Kesuvah a third above their value. R. Shimon says, since they can be spent only with difficulty, he writes only their value.
Answer #2: The entire Beraisa is like R. Shimon. It is abbreviated, and it means as follows:
Gold is like Kelim, and gold coins are like money. This applies only where they are commonly converted;
Where they are not converted, they are written in the Kesuvah at their value.
Question #1 remains difficult!
Answer #2 (to Question (b)): Beraisa #1 discusses fine pieces of gold, which depreciate. (Therefore, they are like silver Kelim.)
Answer #3 (Rav Ashi): Beraisa #1 discusses gold particles (Rashi; Tosfos - gold ore) (They/it depreciate(s).)
(R. Yanai): Perfumes of Antichi are like money (it is the main commodity there, so he writes a third above their value).
(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): A woman collects Parna (Tosfos - her Kesuvah; Rashi - an additional third) from camels of Arabia.
(Rav Papi): A woman collects Parna from garments of Bei Michsi.
(Rav Papi): A woman collects Parna from sacks of Rodiya and ropes of Kimchoniya.
(Rava): I used to say that a woman collects her Kesuvah from a wallet full of coins in Mechuza, because women rely on them,
Once I saw that they use the money to buy land, I realized that they rely on land, so they may collect only from land.
THE MINIMUM DOWRY GIVEN
(Mishnah): If one marries off his daughter without stipulating, he must give at least 50 Zuz;
If he stipulated that he will marry her off bare, the husband may not say 'when I bring her to my house, I will clothe her.' Rather, he clothes her while she is in her father's house;
Similarly, one (appointed over Tzedakah) who marries off an orphan girl must give at least 50 Zuz. If there is money in the wallet (this will be explained), she is given according to her honor.
(Gemara - Abaye): These 50 Zuz are simple (one eighth silver).
We learn from the Seifa, which says that if there is money in the wallet, she is given according to her honor;
(Rachbah): The 'wallet' is the Tzedakah fund.
We would not give 50 Zuz of pure silver from Tzedakah!
THE OBLIGATION OF TZEDAKAH
(Beraisa): If two orphans, a boy and a girl, come to be fed, we feed the girl before the boy, for it is natural for a man to beg from door to door, but not for a woman.
(Beraisa): If two orphans, a boy and a girl, come to be married, we marry off the girl first, since the shame of a girl (who is single) is greater than that of a man.
(Beraisa): If an orphan comes to get married, first we rent a house for him, supply a covered bed and all needed Kelim, then we marry him off.
"Sufficient for what he lacks" refers to a house. "That is lacking" refers to a bed and table. "Lo (to him)" is a wife, like it says, "I will make Lo (for him) a helper corresponding to him".
(Beraisa): "Sufficient for what he lacks" - you are commanded to finance him, you need not make him wealthy. "That is lacking to him" - even a horse to ride on, and a slave to run in front of him;
There was a poor man that was born to a rich family. Hillel bought for him a horse to ride on and a slave to run in front of him. Once, he did not find a slave to run in front of him; Hillel ran three Mil (about three kilometers) in front of him.
(Beraisa): A case occurred in the upper Galil, in which a man born to a rich family became poor. They bought for him one Litra of meat each day.
Question: What is so special about that?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): It was a Litra of fowl (which is expensive).
Answer #2: They bought meat with a Litra of coins.
Answer #3 (Rav Ashi): He lived in a small village. Every day they slaughtered an animal for him (even though much of the remaining meat would be wasted).
A man came in front of R. Nechemyah (and requested food).
R. Nechemyah: What do you normally eat?
The man: I eat fat meat and old wine.
R. Nechemyah: I have lentils. Do you want to eat with me?
The man ate some of the lentils and died.
R. Nechemyah: Woe to him, that I killed him!
Question: R. Nechemyah should lament over himself, that he killed him!
Answer: The man was at fault for making himself so finicky.
A man came in front of Rava.
Rava: What do you normally eat?
The man: I eat fattened hens and old wine.
Rava: You should be concerned for imposing on the money of the congregation!
The man: Do I eat from them?! I eat from Hash-m!
(Beraisa): "The eyes of all hope to You, and You give to them their food in his time" - it does not say in their time, rather in his time, teaching that Hash-m gives each one his food in his time.
In the meantime, Rava's sister came. He had not seen her for 13 years. She brought with her a fatted hen and old wine.
Rava: I have spoken too much. Come and eat!
(Beraisa - R. Meir): If a person lacks and does not want to receive Tzedakah, we give to him for a loan, and later for a gift;
Chachamim say, we give him a gift, and later a loan.
Question: The case is that he will not take a gift!
Answer (Rava): We offer to him a gift.
(Beraisa - continuation): If he has money but refuses to spend it and starves himself because he wants to be supported by Tzedakah, we give him a gift and later collect it from him.
Question: If so, he will not take again!
Answer (Rav Papa): We collect it only after he dies.
(Beraisa - continuation - R. Shimon): We are not responsible for one who has money and will not spend it;
If he does not have and does not want to take, we say 'give to us a security and we will lend to you' to assuage his mind.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "Lend" refers to one who lacks and does not want to receive Tzedakah. We give to him a loan, and later, a gift;
"You will lend to him" refers to one who has, but will not spend it, because he wants to receive Tzedakah. We give to him for a gift, and collect from him after he dies;
Chachamim say, we are not responsible for such a person.
Question: If so, what do we learn from the repetition "Lend, you will lend him"?
Answer: The Torah speaks as people do. (It is normal to double the verb. We do not expound this.)
HOW SOME CHACHAMIM GAVE TZEDAKAH
There was a poor man in Mar Ukva's neighborhood. Each day, Mar Ukva used to throw four Zuz into the hole where the pivot-hinge of the door swings.
One day, the man decided to see who was giving him the money. That day, Mar Ukva was late returning from the Beis Medrash; his wife accompanied him.
When the man saw that they were approaching the door, he ran after them. They fled, and entered an oven from which the coals had been swept.
Mar Ukva's feet were getting burnt. His wife (whose feet were fine) told him to put his feet on hers. He was troubled (that he did not merit a miracle like she did).
His wife: I am home all day (to give to the poor). Also, I give food, which they can enjoy immediately.
Question: Why did they go to such extremes so that the poor man should not see them?
Answer: (Mar Zutra bar Tuvya): It is better for a person to allow people to put him in a furnace, than to make someone blush.
We learn from Tamar - "She was being taken out (to be burned, yet she did not defend herself, because it would have embarrassed Yehudah)".
Mar Ukva used to give 400 Zuz to a particular poor person every Erev Yom Kipur. Once, he sent the money with his son.
His son: He does not need the money!
Mar Ukva: What did you see?
His son: They were scenting the house by sprinkling old wine on the floor.
Mar Ukva: I didn't know that they were so delicate!
Mar Ukva sent double the amount he used to send.
When Mar Ukva was dying, he asked to see his Tzedakah records. He saw that he had given 7000 Si'anki Dinarim.
Mar Ukva: I have sparse provisions for a long journey!
He gave half his money to Tzedakah.
Question: R. Ila'a taught that in Usha they enacted that one should not give more than a fifth of his money to Tzedakah!
Answer: That applies only during his life, lest he come to need. This is not a concern when he dies!
R. Aba used to wrap coins in a garment and throw them behind him. He would go where the poor were, and watch that tricksters should not take the money for themselves.