WHEN IS A WIFE OBLIGATED TO NURSE?
If she ate eggs, fish, celery, coriander or Esrog, the child will be fragrant, have big eyes, have grace in the eyes of people, be radiant, be stout, or be fragrant, respectively.
The wife of Shvor Malka (a Persian king) ate Esrog during pregnancy. When he wanted to smell fragrances, the first thing they would bring was his daughter.
(Rav Huna): If she wants to nurse and her husband objects, she may nurse. It pains her not to nurse;
Question (Rav Huna bar Chinena): If he wants her to nurse, and she does not want to, what is the law?
If it is not the custom of her family to nurse, she need not nurse.
We ask about when her family's custom is to nurse but his family's is not to nurse. Do we follow the custom of his family, or of hers?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna - Beraisa): She rises with him (in matters of honor) and does not descend with him.
(Rav Huna): We learn from "Be'ulas Ba'al", which is like 'b'Aliyas Ba'al', the eminence of her husband.
Answer #2 (R. Elazar): We can learn from "She was the mother of all living." It (motherhood, which includes nursing) was given for life, not for pain.
EXEMPTION FROM CHORES
(Mishnah): If she brought a slave into the marriage (she need not grind, bake or launder).
Inference: The wife must do the other chores.
Question: She should be exempt from all chores! She can say 'I brought a woman in my place!'
Answer: Her husband can respond 'she will serve me and herself. Who will serve you?!'
(Mishnah): If she brought two slaves, she need not cook or nurse...
Question: She should be exempt from all chores! She can say 'I brought one to serve me and herself, and one to serve you and herself!'
Answer: Her husband can respond 'who will serve the guests?!'
(Mishnah): If she brought three slaves she does not make the bed...
Question: She should be exempt from all chores! She can say 'I brought another slave to serve the guests!'
Answer: He can respond 'when there are many in the house, many travelers stop by.'
Question: The same applies to four slaves (but then she is exempt)!
Answer: Once there are many slaves, they help each other.
(R. Chana): Even if she did not bring slaves into the marriage, rather enough property to buy slaves, she is exempt from chores.
(Beraisa): If she saved money for him (by being satisfied with less than she is entitled to, e.g. cosmetics), it is as if she brought it into the marriage.
SPECIAL TASKS THAT A WIFE DOES FOR HER HUSBAND
(Mishnah): If she brought four slaves, she sits in an easy chair...
(Rav Yitzchak bar Chananya): Nevertheless, she mixes his drink, sets his bed, and washes his hands, feet and face.
(Rav Yitzchak bar Chananya): A Nidah does for a husband everything that a wife does, except for mixing his drink, setting his bed, and washing his hands, feet and face.
(Rava): Setting the bed is forbidden only in front of him.
Shmuel's wife would serve his drink unnaturally, with her left hand;
Abaye's wife would place it on top of a barrel.
Rava's wife would place it at the head of his bed.
Rav Papa's wife would place it on a bench.
ONE WHO DESIRES FOOD MUST TASTE IT
(Rav Yitzchak bar Chananya): One may delay letting a servant taste any food except for meat and wine.
(Rav Chisda): This applies only to fatty meat and old wine.
(Rava): It applies to fatty meat the entire year, and to old wine only in summer.
Rav Anan bar Tachlifa: I was standing in front of Shmuel, and they brought him a mushroom dish. Had I not been given to taste, I would have been in danger.
Rav Ashi: I was standing in front of Rav Kahana, and they brought him sliced turnips in vinegar. Had I not been given to taste, I would have been in danger.
(Rav Papa): Even fat dates can pose a danger.
The rule is, anything with smell or pungency must be tasted.
Avuha bar Ihi or Minyamin bar Ihi allowed his attendant to taste all the cooked foods right away. The other let him eat one now, and taste the rest after the meal. Eliyahu would speak only with the former.
There were two Chasidim (some say that they were Rav Mari and Rav Pinchas, the sons of Rav Chisda). One allowed his attendant to taste before himself, and the other allowed him to taste after serving his master and the guests. Eliyahu would speak only with the former.
Ameimar, Mar Zutra and Rav Ashi were sitting at the doorway of King Azgor. The king's waiters passed, carrying his meal. Rav Ashi saw that Mar Zutra turned pale.
Rav Ashi stuck his finger in the food and put it in Mar Zutra's mouth.
The waiters: You ruined his meal!
The king's officers: Why did you do that?
Rav Ashi: The one who prepared this is not worthy to prepare the king's food!
The officers: What is wrong with it?!
Rav Ashi: It contains leprous pork!
They checked the food, and did not find this to be so. Rav Ashi took the chef's finger and stuck it on a piece. 'Did you check this?'
They checked, and found that it was leprous.
Rabanan (to Rav Ashi): Why did you rely on a miracle?
Rav Ashi: I saw a spirit of Tzara'as above Mar Zutra. (Chasam Sofer - this showed that he was in great danger. The Ramban says that turning pale shows danger. Perhaps he explains like Mishneh Halachos (14:271), that the spirit of Tzara'as came over Mar Zutra after he ate it, showing Rav Ashi that there is Tzara'as in the food.)
A man asked a woman to become Mekudeshes to him; she refused. He brought a pomegranate, split it open and was eating it in front of her. She salivated, and swallowed her saliva. He did not give to her, and she became very sick and inflated.
He said that he would cure her if she would marry him; she agreed. He brought a pomegranate, split it open and was eating it in front of her. She salivated; he told her to spit out the saliva, until green came out of her, and she was cured.
THE OBLIGATION TO SPIN WOOL
(Mishnah): She must spin wool...
Inference: She must spin wool, but not linen. The Mishnah is like R. Yehudah:
(Beraisa): He cannot force her to serve his father or son, nor to give straw to his animals, but he can force her to give straw to his cattle;
R. Yehudah says, he can't even force her to spin linen, for (one needs to hold the threads in his mouth to moisten them and) this causes bad breath and elongates the lips.
This applies only to Roman linen.
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): Even if she brings 100 slaves (he forces her to spin wool, since idleness causes immorality).
(Rav Malkiyo): The Halachah follows R. Eliezer.
(R. Chanina): (Six teachings were taught by Amora'im with very similar names.) Rav Malkiyo taught about a roasting spit, slaves and hair follicles. Rav Malkiya taught about Bloris (a pagan rite of letting hair grow very long), ashes and cheese.
(Rav Papa): Rav Malkiya's teachings pertain to Mishnayos and Beraisos. Rav Malkiyo's teachings pertain to Amora'ic teachings.
The Siman to remember this is Masnisa (Mishnayos and Beraisos) are Malkesa (queen, i.e. supreme. The words Masnisa, Malkesa and Malkiya are all feminine).
Rav Papa and R. Chanina argue about who taught about slaves (Rav Papa says that Rav Malkiya taught this. Some say that they also argue about who taught about ashes - Tosfos.)
(Mishnah): R. Shimon ben Gamliel says (even if through a vow he forbade her to work, he must divorce her and pay a Kesuvah, for idleness leads to insanity.)
Question: Also R. Eliezer said that she must (do something, i.e.) spin wool!
Answer: They argue about one who (does not work, but) plays with small dogs and plays chess. (This leads to immorality, but not to insanity.)
ONE WHO VOWED TO FORBID BI'AH
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): If one vowed and forbade Bi'ah with his wife, up to two weeks he may stay married. (Beyond this, he must divorce her and pay her Kesuvah
Beis Hillel say, up to one week he may stay married. (Beyond this, he must divorce her and pay her Kesuvah;)
Chachamim may go to learn for 30 days without permission. Workers may go for one week;
R. Eliezer says, the Torah obligates Onah (the frequency of Bi'ah) according to his occupation:
For Tayalim (idle men) it is every day; for workers it is twice a week; for donkey-drivers it is weekly; for camel-drivers it is monthly; for sailors it is once in six months.
(Gemara) Question: What are the sources for their opinions?
Answer #1: Beis Shamai learn from Yoledes Nekeivah (one who gave birth to a girl), who (is Temei'ah and) may not have Bi'ah for two weeks. Beis Hillel learn from one who gave birth to a boy, who is forbidden for one week.
Objection: Beis Hillel should also learn from Yoledes Nekeivah that sometimes a woman is forbidden for two weeks!
Retraction: Indeed, if Beis Hillel learned from a Yoledes, they would agree with Beis Shamai.
Answer #2: Beis Hillel learn from a Nidah (who is forbidden for seven days);
Beis Hillel learn what is common (vows result from anger, which is common) from what is common (Nidah). Beis Shamai learn what results from the man (the vow) from birth, which is due to the man.
(Rav): They argue about a vow of specified duration. All agree about a Stam (unlimited) vow, that he must immediately divorce her and pay a Kesuvah.
(Shmuel): Even regarding a Stam vow, he waits (one or two weeks), in case he will find a Pesach (a reason why the vow was a mistake and can be annulled).
Question: Rav and Shmuel already argued similarly!
(Mishnah): If one vowed that his wife may not benefit from him, up to 30 days, he gets someone to finance her. Beyond this, he must divorce her and pay her Kesuvah. (This does not forbid her to have Bi'ah with him, for he is obligated to her. Above, he forbade to himself pleasure of Bi'ah with her.)
(Rav): This applies to a vow of specified duration. If he vowed Stam, he must immediately divorce her and pay a Kesuvah.
(Shmuel): Even regarding a Stam vow he waits 30 days. Perhaps he will find a Pesach to annul his vow.
Answer: Rav and Shmuel needed to argue in both cases:
Had they argued only here, we would have said that here Rav obligates him to divorce her immediately (regarding a Stam vow) since no one can have Bi'ah with her in his place, but there he would agree with Shmuel;
Had they argued only there, we would have said that there Shmuel allows waiting (since a third party can finance her), but here he would agree with Rav.