KESUVOS 104-105 (5 Teves) - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

[105a - 45 lines; 105b - 50 lines]

1a)[line 1]תשבע בסוףTISHAVA BA'SOF- (lit. she takes an oath at the end) when she hears that her husband has passed away or when he sends her a Get to divorce her, before she can collect her Kesuvah she must take an oath to attest that she has not taken any of her husband's money unjustly

b)[line 1]ולא תשבע בתחלהV'LO SISHAVA BI'TECHILAH- but she does not take an oath when she asks to receive money for food (lit. at the onset; however, she may not ask for money within the first three months of her husband's departure, since there is a Chazakah that a person who travels abroad leaves enough provisions in his house for at least three months - Kesuvos 107a)

2)[line 9]דחשיב ליה קתניD'CHASHIV LEI KA'TANI- the Mishnah listed (a) the two most important judges; (b) the two judges who are mentioned below in the Mishnah (TOSFOS DH d'Chashiv)

3)[line 12]קיטמה נטיעהKITMAH NETI'AH- an animal that cut down a sapling

4)[line 24]מתרומת הלשכהTERUMAS HA'LISHKAH

(a)Every year, one half a Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed the money that was collected in a room in the Mikdash reserved for that purpose.

(b)At three times during the year (before each of the three festivals), Beis Din filled three boxes, each of which held three Se'in (approximately 21.6, 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) with Shekalim from that room. The portion that was set aside in the boxes was called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while the remainder of the Shekalim were called "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (See Insights to Shekalim 9:2)

(c)There is a difference of opinion as to why the Terumas ha'Lishkah was done three times a year rather than just once. One opinion states that the reason was only to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah (Shekalim 2b, see Insights there). According to others, Beis Din was concerned that the Terumas ha'Lishkah should be collected from the Shekalim that arrived later in the year (this opinion is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, ibid.).

(d)The Shekalim from the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used to purchase the animals needed for public sacrifices and for the wages of certain laborers and appointees of Hekdesh. The Shekalim from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah were used to buy other goods necessary for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the entire city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).

5)[line 25]לא ספקוLO SAFKU- if it did not suffice to buy their food. (The 99 Maneh were the wages for the three Batei Dinim of Admon, Chanan ha'Mitzri, and Chanan ben Avishalom. Each Beis Din consisted of 23 judges. As such, each judge received approximately 143 Zuzim. MAHARSHA)

6)[line 26]איסתירא מזכאי ואיסתירא מחייבISTIRA MI'ZAKAI V'ISTIRA ME'CHAYAV- a Sela Medinah (a Sela of Kesef Medinah, provincial coinage, the value of which is one-eighth of Kesef Tzuri, the denominations of coins used in Tzor) from the litigant who was acquitted and a Sela Medinah from the litigant who was found guilty

7)[line 28]לאצלויי דינאL'ATZLUYEI DINA- to tip the judgment [in favor of one of them]

8)[line 32]אגראAGRA- wage

9a)[line 34]אגר דינאAGAR DINA- the wage for judging

b)[line 34]אגר בטילאAGAR BETEILA- the wage for being idle from work [at the time that he is in judgment]

10)[line 34]מכוערMECHU'AR- repulsive, disgusting

11)[line 37]בטילא דלא מוכחאBETEILA D'LO MUCHECHA- idleness that is not evident

12)[line 37]דהוה תהי באמברא דחמראHAVAH TAHI B'AMBARA D'CHAMRA- he would sniff stores of wine [to see which wine was about to spoil]

13)[line 39]דדלי לי בחריקאיD'DALI LI B'CHARIKAI- who will draw water [and water my fields] in my place

14)[line 40]סמויותSEMUYOS- blind


15)[line 2]טירוף דעתTEIRUF DA'AS- confusion, befuddlement of the mind

16)[line 4]"מלך במשפט יעמיד ארץ ואיש תרומות יהרסנה""MELECH B'MISHPAT YA'AMID ERETZ V'ISH TERUMOS YEHERSENAH."- "The king by justice establishes the land; but he who exacts gifts destroys it." (Mishlei 29:4)

17)[line 6]שמחזר על הגרנותSHE'MECHAZER AL HA'GERANOS- who walks from one threshing floor to another

18)[line 8]דשאיל שאילתאD'SHA'IL SHE'EILTA- who [regularly] borrows [animals and utensils]

19)[line 9]דלית ליה לאושוליD'LEIS LEI L'OSHOLEI- who does not have anything to lend

20)[line 12]לאחשובינהו הוא דבעיL'ACHSHUVINHU HU D'BA'I- he wanted to give them prominence

21)[line 14]איקרבא ליה דעתיה לגביהIKARVA LEI DA'ATEI L'GABEI- he becomes close to him

22)[line 16]שהוא חדSHE'HU CHAD- that it is one, i.e. it makes the giver and receiver into one person

23)[line 19]צורבאTZURBA- a young Talmid Chacham

24)[line 20]דמרחמין ליה בני מתאD'MERACHAMIN LEI BNEI MASA- who is well-liked by the people of his city

25)[line 21]דמעלי טפיD'MA'ALI TEFEI- that he is very upstanding or righteous

26)[line 21]דלא מוכח להו במילי דשמיאD'LO MOCHACH LEHU B'MILEI DI'SHEMAYA- he does not rebuke them in spiritual matters

27)[line 22]מינייהו סנו ליMINAIHU SANU LI- some of them hate me [because I passed judgment against them]

28)[line 24]אם מרחם כולהו רחמו ליIM MERACHEM, KULHU RACHAMU LI- if any of them like me, then they all like me

29)[line 26]הוה עבר במבראHAVAH AVAR B'MAVRA- was crossing a bridge

30)[line 28]פרח גדפא ארישיהPARACH GADFA A'REISHEI- a feather flew on his head

31)[line 30]הוה שדי רוקא קמיהHAVAH SHADI RUKA KAMEI- spittle was lying on the ground in front of him

32)[line 30]כסייהKASYEI- he covered it

33)[line 32]אריסיהARISEI- his sharecropper

34)[line 32]כנתא דפיריKANTA D'FEIREI- a basket of fruits

35)[line 35]זוזא דרבנןZUZA D'RABANAN- a pair of scholars

36)[line 35]בהדי דקאזיל ואתיBAHADI D'KA'AZIL V'ASI- while he was walking back and forth

37)[line 35]אמר אי בעי טעין הכיAMAR, IY BA'I TA'IN HACHI- he said to himself, if he wants he could claim like this

38)[line 36]תיפח נפשםTIPACH NAFSHAM- May their souls rot! Woe unto them!

39)[line 38]ראשית הגזREISHIS HA'GEZ

(a)Every time a flock of sheep is shorn, it is a Mitzvas Aseh to give the first shearings to a Kohen, as stated in Devarim (18:4), "v'Reishis Gez Tzoncha Titen Lo." Although the Mishnah (Chulin 135a) states that this Mitzvah applies both in Eretz Yisrael and in Chutz la'Aretz, the Halachah follows the ruling of Rebbi Ila'i (ibid. 136b, Berachos 22a) who rules that the Mitzvah applies only in Eretz Yisrael (Rambam Hilchos Bikurim ch. 10).

(b)The owner is obligated to give the first shearings to the Kohen only when a minimum amount of fleece is shorn from a minimum number of sheep. The minimum number of sheep is two according to Beis Shamai and five according to Beis Hillel. The Halachah follows Beis Hillel (Chulin 135a). The minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn from each of the five sheep is the amount of fleece that weighs a "Maneh u'Feras" (a Maneh and a half) according to Rebbi Dosa ben Harkinas (ibid.). (A Maneh is 100 silver Dinerin, each one of which occupies the volume of 96 grains of barley - Kidushin 12a.) As such, the total minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn according to Rebbi Dosa is 750 silver Dinerin. According to the Rabanan, the weight of twelve Sela'im must be shorn from each sheep, for a total of 60 Sela'im (i.e. 240 Dinerin), according to Shmuel, who holds the Halachic opinion - Chulin 137b. Rav maintains that according to the Rabanan the wool of all five animals must weigh 150 Dinerin.

(c)After all of one's sheep are shorn, one must give to the Kohen one-sixtieth of all of the shearings, whether it is a lot or a little (as long as the minimum required amount is fulfilled, as mentioned above). When one gives the wool to the Kohanim, he must not give less than the weight of five Shekalim (ten Dinerin) of wool to each Kohen, which is the amount that suffices to make a belt (Chulin 138a).

40)[line 38]מדוך פלןMI'DUCH PELAN- from such-and-such a place

41)[line 44]דגילדני דבי גיליGILDANEI D'VEI GILEI- very small fish

42)[line 45]דינא דמר לא בעינאDINA D'MAR LO BA'INA- I do not need the master to judge me

43)[line 45]דלא למנען מר מאקרובי בכוריםD'LO L'MAN'AN MAR ME'AKRUVEI BIKURIM- that the master should not prevent me from bringing Bikurim

44)[line 47]"ואיש בא מבעל שלשה ויבא לאיש האלקים לחם בכורים עשרים לחם שערים וכרמל בצקלנו [ויאמר תן לעם ויאכלו כי כה אמר ה' אכול והותר]""V'ISH BA MI'BA'AL SHALISHAH VA'YAVEI L'ISH HA'ELOKIM LECHEM BIKURIM ESRIM LECHEM SE'ORIM V'CHARMEL B'TZIKLONO" - "And a man came from Ba'al Shalishah bringing with him for the man of G-d (Elisha) twenty barley breads from the new harvest and fresh ears of corn with their shells, [and he said, 'Give it to the people and let them eat!' And his (Elisha's) servant said, 'How can I give this (so little) to a hundred people?' And he (Elisha) said, 'Give it to the people and let them eat; for so HaSh-m said: Eat and leave over!']" (Melachim 2 4:42-43) (ANOTHER MIRACLE IN TIME OF FAMINE)

This is one of ten miracles performed by Elisha. It took place during a time of famine. Following Elisha's instructions, his servant indeed distributed the inadequate amount of food to the hundred people gathered there, and, the verse concludes, they ate and left over, just as the Navi said they would.

45)[last line]הוה קאים דינא דיתמי קמיהHAVAH KA'IM DINA D'YASMEI KAMEI- there was a case in which one side was litigants who were orphans, that was waiting for him to judge