[75a - 50 lines; 75b - 35 lines]
1)[line 1]"לא הכום בני ישראל כי נשבעו להם נשיאי העדה [בה' אלקי ישראל וילנו כל העדה על הנשיאים]""V'LO HIKUM B'NEI YISRAEL, KI NISHBE'U LAHEM NESI'EI HA'EIDAH [BA'HASH-M ELOKEI YISRAEL. VA'YILONU KOL HA'EDAH AL HA'NESI'IM]" - "And Bnei Yisrael did not smite them, because the leaders of the congregation had sworn [by HaSh-m, the G-d of Yisrael. And the entire congregation complained about the leaders.]" (Yehoshua 9:18) (THE GIV'ONIM)
(a)The verse records how, when the seven nations of Kena'an (except for the Girgashi, who had fled) heard what Yisrael did to the cities of Yericho and Ai, they gathered forces to fight against Yisrael. The one exception was the inhabitants of Giv'on (a town belonging to the Chivi), who - taking their cue from Shimon and Levi who used devious means to kill the inhabitants of Shechem (also a Chivite city), tricked Yisrael into believing that they were not from the seven nations.
(b)They placed worn-out sackcloth on their donkeys, and they clothed themselves in old tattered shoes and worn-out clothing. Then, taking with them old flasks of wine that were split and patched, and stale, moldy bread, they made their way to the camp of Yisrael pretending to have come from a distant country to enter into a peace-treaty with Yehoshua. Yehoshua initially suspected them of tricking him. In the end, however, he accepted their story, when they insisted that after the people of their land heard what HaSh-m had done first to Egypt and then to Sichon and Og, they appointed them to make peace with His people.
(c)Yehoshua and the elders heard what they had to say, and without consulting HaSh-m they made a treaty with them and swore not to harm them. Three days later they discovered the truth when they arrived at Giv'on and other cities (including Kiryas Ye'arim) in which the Giv'onim resided.
(d)Although the treaty was made under false pretences and they were permitted to abrogate it, they decided to uphold it in order to avoid Chilul HaSh-m. Yehoshua did, however, penalize the Giv'onim by cursing them and appointing them as wood-choppers and water-drawers for the Beis ha'Mikdash, and in time of war to act as communal slaves for whatever purpose they might be needed.
2)[line 10]באשה חשובה עסקינןB'ISHAH CHASHUVAH ASKINAN- see Insights
3)[line 11]אי הכי סיפא דקתני אבל הוא שהלךIY HACHI, SEIFA DEKA'TANI AVAL HU SHE'HALACH...- (The Gemara could have asked from this Beraisa all along, since the Beraisa says that even if he goes to a doctor who heals him he is Mekudeshes, even though the doctor obviously heals him "from now on," rather then retroactively - RITVA.)
4)[line 17]טב למיתב טן דו מלמיתב ארמלוTAV L'MEISAV TAN DU MIL'MEISAV ARMELU- It is better to sit together as a couple (even with a husband of low status) than to sit alone like a widow
5)[line 18]דשומשמנא גברא כורסיה בי חראתאD'SHUMSHEMANA GAVRA, (KURSEI) [KURSAYA] BEI CHARATA RAMI LAH- [Even though] her husband is [as short as] an ant, she sets her chair among the noble women (saying, "I have a husband just like you do!")
6)[line 19]דנפסא גברא תיקרייה בסיפי בבא ותיתיבD'NAFSA GAVRA, TIKARYEI B'SIPEI VAVA V'SEISIV- [Even though] her husband has the [revolting] job of combing wool to untangle the clumps of raw material into separate strands, she [is not embarrassed when she] calls to him from the threshold of the gate (in public) to sit next to her
7)[line 21]דקלסא גברא לא (בעי) [בעיא] טלפחי לקידראD'KALSA GAVRA, LO (BA'I) [BA'AYA] TELAFCHEI L'KIDRA- [Even though] her husband (a) is of questionable lineage (RASHI); (b) sells heads of cabbage (TOSFOS to Yevamos 118b DH d'Kolsa), she does not even ask him for lentils (a very inexpensive food) for her pot (i.e. she does not ask him for anything, as long as she can be called Mrs. So-and-so (RASHI).
8)[line 22]וכולן מזנות ותולות בבעליהןV'CHULAN MEZANOS V'SOLOS B'VA'ALEIHEN- and all [of these women who are married to men of low status] have extra-marital relationships and attribute [the paternity of the resulting children] to their husbands
9)[line 23]זיעהZEI'AH- sweat (i.e. a woman who sweats constantly)
10)[line 23]ושומאSHUMA- (O.F. verrue) a wart
11)[line 23]וריח הפהR EI'ACH HA'PEH- [a woman who has] bad breath
12)[line 24]והמזוהםHA'MEZOHAM- an animal with an offensive smell
13)[line 31]כאיסר האיטלקיK'ISAR HA'ITALKI- like the Roman coin known as an "As," which is the equivalent of 1/24 of a Dinar. Its area was approximately 4.1 sq. cm or 0.64 sq. in. (1 Isar = 6-8 Perutos, based on Kidushin 12a)
14)[line 32]פדחתהPADACHTAH- her forehead
15)[line 32]ראה וניפייס הואRA'AH V'NIFAYEIS HU!- that is a case where he saw it [before he married her] and he agreed to bear with it!
16)[line 33]כפה של ראשהKIPAH SHEL ROSHAH- her head covering
17)[line 35]צלקתTZALEKES- a scar
18)[line 36]"כי קולך ערב ומראך נאוה""KI KOLECH AREV U'MAR'ECH NAVEH"- "[O my dove, in the clefts of the rock, in the secret places of the cliff, let me see your countenance, let me hear your voice;] for your voice is sweet, and your countenance is comely." (Shir ha'Shirim 2:14)
19)[line 41]ערביאARAVIYA- and Arab woman
20)[line 41]שהפשילהSHE'HIFSHILAH- who slung [over her shoulder]
21)[line 42]"ולציון...""UL'TZIYON..."- "And of Zion it shall be said, 'This and that man was born in her;' and He shall establish her exalted over all other cities." (Tehilim 87:5)
22)[line 44]אמר אביי וחד מינייהו עדיף כתריA MAR ABAYE: V'CHAD MINAIHU ADIF KI'TREI MINAN- (Abaye may have learned this from the words of the above-quoted verse, which implies that one who is born in Zion is like "Ish v'Ish," or two men - SHITAH MEKUBETZES, RASHASH. Alternatively, Abaye is commenting on the previous Drush. Although we learn from the verse that the Zechus of one who longs to return to Zion is equal to the Zechus of one who lives there, nevertheless they are not equal in all respects. With regard to their wisdom, the one who does not actually live in Zion cannot compare to the one who does live there - SHITAH MEKUBETZES.)
23)[line 44]וחד מינייהו עדיף כתרי מינןV'CHAD MINAIHU ADIF KI'TREI MINAN- and one of them (a scholar of Eretz Yisrael) is better than two of us (the scholars of Bavel)
24)[line 46]בבלאי טפשאיBAVLA'EI TIPSHA'EI- foolish Babylonians
25)[line 48]ונסתחפה שדהוV'NISTACHFAH SADEHU- (lit. and his field was washed out) it was the husband's bad Mazal that caused her to develop the blemishes
26)[line 6]לא מפיה אנו חייןL O MI'PIHA ANU CHAYIN- (lit. we do not live from her mouth) we do not conduct ourselves according to her words. (One of the three pillars of the world is Emes, truth (Avos 1:18). As such, the Mishnah Kesuvos 12b employs the phrase, "We do not live from her words," i.e. we cannot assume that her words are the truth - TOSFOS REBBI AKIVA EIGER, quoting TALMIDEI RABEINU YONAH, cited in the SHITAH MEKUBETZES to Kesuvos ibid. The TIFERES YISRAEL cites the Gemara in Sanhedrin 97a that tells of a place called Kushta, the inhabitants of which live long lives because they never tell lies. The word Kushta also means truth. Accordingly, the Mishnah hints that we will not live long lives because of her words, since she may be lying.)
27)[line 11]תבראTAVRA- (a) there is a contradiction (between the two parts of the Mishnah) (RASHI); (b) a word used as an oath (TOSFOS DH Tavra, citing RABEINU CHANANEL)
28)[line 17]בהרתBAHERES (NIG'EI BASAR)
(a)When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one week, making him a Metzora Musgar (Hesger Rishon). The Kohen returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If there are no changes, the person remains a Metzora Musgar (Hesger Sheni) and the Kohen returns after the second week. If there are still no changes the Kohen pronounces the person to be Tahor. If the Kohen confirms the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b)The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c)The Simanei Tum'ah for marks that appear on the skin (Nig'ei Basar) are: 1. the mark spreads (Pisyon); 2. at least two white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark; or 3. a patch of healthy skin (Michyah) appears in the middle of the Nega.
(d)A person is only a Muchlat if the mark of Tzara'as appears before the emergence of the white hairs. If the white hairs emerge first, then he only becomes a Metzora Muchlat if he develops other Simanei Tum'ah.
29)[line 17]שער לבןSE'AR LAVAN (SIMANEI TUM'AH)
See previous entry, paragraphs (c), (d).
30)[line 19]כההKEHAH- the mark of Tzara'as became dull (a sign that the Metzora is Tahor)