KESUVOS 56 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[56a - 46 lines; 56b - 38 lines]

1)[line 3]איקרובי דעתאIKRUVEI DA'ATA- (lit. closeness of minds) closeness [due to the impending connections through marriage]

2)[line 6]פוק קרי קראך לבראPUK! KARI KERA'ACH L'VARA!- Go teach your Halachos outside [of the Beis ha'Midrash] (i.e. your opinion about this Halachah is unacceptable)

3)[line 14]דלט רב נחמןD'LAT RAV NACHMAN- that Rav Nachman cursed

4)[line 15]הכי והכי תיהויHACHI V'HACHI SEHEVEI- such-and-such a thing should happen to him

5)[line 32]יחליףYACHLIF- he should write a new bill of debt for the remaining amount (using the date on which the payment was made - RASHI)

6)[line 33]שוברSHOVER- a receipt

7)[line 33]כששוברתה מתוכהKESHE'SHOVERTAH MI'TOCHAH- [our Mishnah is referring to a case] where the receipt is written inside the Kesuvah itself

8)[line 35]מירכס תברתאMIRKAS TEVARTA- the receipt will get lost

9)[line 35]הכא ודאי יהב להH ACHA, VADAI YAHAV LAH?- in our case, has he given her any money [that we should worry about him suffering a loss]?

10)[line 36]מילתא בעלמא היא דאמרה ליהMILSA B'ALMA HI D'AMRAH LEI- she merely stated the matter to him [that she forgoes part of the Kesuvah]

11)[line 36]אי נטריה נטריהIY NATREI, NATREI- if he guards it (the Shover), it will be useful in the future

12)[line 39]טעמא דכתבה ליהTA'AMA, D'CHASVAH LEI- that is, if she writes that she is foregoing the Kesuvah, it becomes a Shtar to the effect that she has foregone the Kesuvah. If she just speaks out that she is foregoing the Kesuvah, though, it is no more than a Tenai. (See Rashi 56b DH Rebbi Yosi.)

13a)[line 41]שארSHE'ER- food

b)[line 42]כסותKESUS- clothing

c)[line 42]ועונהV'ONAH- and the obligation of a husband with regard to marital relations

14)[line 45]עד שיכתוב להAD SHE'YICHTOV LAH- unless he writes her [a document containing the words Din u'Devarim...] (while she is still an Arusah)

15)[last line]דין ודברים אין לי בנכסיךDIN U'DEVARIM EIN LI B'NICHSEICH- I have no claim in court on your properties [and not even the right to complain - TOSFOS YOM TOV, Kesuvos 9:1 DH Din]


16)[line 4]החמריןCHAMARIM- donkey-drivers (who have produce to sell)

17)[line 7]חדשCHADASH- new grain that has not had sufficient time to dry (RASHI, RABEINU TAM in Tosfos 24a)

18)[line 7]אינו מתוקןEINO MESUKAN- fruits from which Terumos and Ma'asros were not separated

19)[line 10]ספק דדבריהםSAFEK D'DIVREIHEM- a Rabbinic law in which there is a doubt [since most unlearned people do separate Terumos and Ma'asros]

20a)[line 11]בדמאי הקילוBI'DEMAI HEIKILU- the Rabanan were lenient regarding Demai, since most unlearned people do separate Terumos and Ma'asros

b)[line 11]בדמאי הקילוBI'DEMAI HEIKILU (DEMAI)

(a)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" - "what is this?").

(b)Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").

21)[line 14]לא סמכא דעתהLO SAMCHA DA'ATAH- she does not rely on him (she is afraid that he will divorce her since she thinks that he does not have to pay her the full value of her Kesuvah)

22)[line 28]וכי מה תיקון העולם יש בזו והלא אין קצובין ופוחתיןV'CHI MAH TIKUN HA'OLAM YESH B'ZU, V'HALO EIN KETZUVIN U'FOCHASIN- that is, Rebbi Yosi is saying, like the Tana Kama, that a man cannot set aside Metaltelim for his wife's Kesuvah. Doing so would be a breach of "Tikun ha'Olam," since they depreciate in value.

23)[line 32]קבל עליו אחריותKIBEL ALAV ACHRAYUS- the husband accepted upon himself Achrayus (see Background to Kesuvos 51:9) to replace the objects of the dowry if they are lost [but he did not accept to replace their original value if they decreased in value]

24)[line 37]לא ידעה דתחילLO YAD'AH D'SACHIL- it is impossible for her to know [whether or not, or by how much the objects included in the dowry would go down in value] such that she should forgo the decrease