[28a - 48 lines; 28b - 46 lines]

1)[line 2]כפר קטן נידון כשכונהKEFAR KATAN NIDON K'SHECHUNAH- a small village has the same ruling as a neighborhood (they may not live in the same village)

2)[line 10]דאגיר מיגרD'AGIR MEIGAR- he rented the dwelling (perhaps the ruling that she has to move is dealing with a case where he had merely rented his dwelling)

3)[line 11]"הנה...""HINEH..."- "Behold, HaSh-m will cause you to wander an intense wandering [and He will make you go around far away places]" (Yeshayah 22:17)

4)[line 12]טלטולי דגברא קשין מדאיתתאTILTULEI D'GAVRA KASHIN MID'ITESA- displacement is more taxing on a man than on a woman

5)[line 16]שמותי משמתינן להוSHEMUTEI MESHAMTINAN LEHU (SHAMTA / NIDUY) - we put them in Niduy (excommunication)

(a)The minimum period of Niduy is thirty days in Eretz Yisrael or seven days in Bavel and elsewhere. If the Menudeh does not repent from his ways he is put into Niduy for a second thirty-day period. If he still does not repent, he is then put into Cherem. The laws of Cherem are much more stringent.

(b)No one may come within four Amos of the Menudeh, except for his wife and family. He is not permitted to eat or drink with other people, nor is he included in a Zimun or any other Mitzvah that requires a quorum of ten men. He may not wash his clothes, shave or take a haircut or wear shoes. Learning and teaching Torah, however, are permitted, as well as engaging in work. The last two are not permitted to a Muchram, who must learn by himself and engage in work to the minimum that will provide him daily sustenance. People may speak with the Menudeh or the Muchram unless Beis Din specifically prohibits it.

(c)Even if the period of Cherem or Niduy has ended, a person remains in Niduy or Cherem until he is permitted by three commoners or by an expert sage (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 334:27 and REMA ibid. 334:24).

6)[line 17]נגודיNEGUDEI- lashing

7)[line 21]שאין לבו גס בהSHE'EIN LIBO GAS BAH- he is not [intimately] familiar with her

8)[line 24]באבל רבתיB'EVEL RABASI- in a tractate consisting of a compilation of Beraisos dealing with the laws of mourning

9)[line 29]דלא גייסי בהדדיD'LO GAISEI BAHADADEI- they did not act intimately familiar with one another

10)[line 34]בהינומאB'HINUMA- (a) with a dome-shaped canopy of myrtle branches above her (RASHI to 17b); (b) wearing a tiara on which is a design of the city Yerushalayim; (c) in the manner that Besulos appear at their weddings, each place according to its custom (RABEINU CHANANEL 15b); (d) wearing a thin scarf that covered her face

11)[line 35]וראשה פרועV'ROSHAH PARU'A- and with her hair undone (which was customary of virgin brides to do)

12)[line 36]ושהיה חולק עמנו על הגורןHAYAH CHOLEK IMANU AL HA'GOREN- he would take a portion of Terumah along with us by the threshing floor

13)[line 37]בית הפרסBEIS HA'PRAS

(a)Beis ha'Pras is a general term referring to a field or an area that the Rabanan decreed to be treated as though it were Tamei, in certain respects. The Mishnayos in Ohalos (18:1-4) explain that there are three specific types of Beis ha'Pras:

1.A field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions. Such a field may be planted with trees, but not with vegetables or grains. Its earth can make a person Tamei through Maga or Masa.

2.A field (that is a Reshus ha'Rabim; TOSFOS Kesuvos 24b; RASH Ohalos 18:3) in which a grave is known to exist but it became lost and cannot be located. In such a field, trees may not be planted but vegetables or grains may be planted. It can make a person Tamei through Ohel (and according to some Girsa'os, through Maga and Masa as well).

3.A field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought [and mourned] before burial. Such a field may neither be planted nor sown with vegetables or grains (but its earth is not Tamei if removed from its place). There are a number of reasons why the Rabanan might have made such a field Tamei:

i.Part of a corpse may have become dislodged and fallen there (RASHI to Moed Katan 5b DH Mishum Ye'ush) [or that an entire corpse may have inadvertently been left behind there - ME'IRI ibid.].

ii.Alternatively, since a corpse is commonly found there, the Rabanan instituted that the area not be sown or planted, so as not to attract people to the area who will become Teme'im and spread Tum'ah. (PERUSH HA'MISHNAH of the Rambam to Ohalos 18:4)

iii.The prohibition against planting or sowing such a field has nothing to do with Tum'ah whatsoever. Rather, it involves a question of ownership. Since the community has made it their practice to mourn for and eulogize the dead in this field and the original owner did not protest this practice, he loses all rights to the land. The former owner cannot later decide to plant the field and deny the community the right to use it as a place for public mourning. (RITVA, RASH Ohalos 18:4 and many Rishonim - see Vilna Ga'on Choshen Mishpat 377:2)

(b)The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Pras" was used to describe these fields: 1. Tum'ah spreads (Pores) out in all directions from the field; 2. Bones that are broken (Perusim) are strewn in the field. (These first two explanations only apply to the first of the three types of Beis ha'Pras mentioned above, 1); 3. People's feet (Parsos) stay away from the area because of its Tum'ah.

(c)In the first type of Beis ha'Pras (a field with a burial plot that has been plowed), the Rabanan decreed that the field is Metamei in every direction from the grave for the length of the furrow of a plow, which is 50 Amos. This results in an area 100 Amos by 100 Amos around the grave (RASH Ohalos 17:1). The Rabanan instituted a way to remove the Tum'ah from the area that was plowed (in certain cases) by blowing the dirt of each section of the field to check for small pieces of bone.

14)[line 38]מעמדMA'AMAD - a privately owned place reserved for "Ma'amad."

In certain areas, after burying the dead the funeral escort would walk a bit and then stop and sit down to comfort the relatives of the deceased and to mourn ("Ma'amad u'Moshav"). They would repeat this procedure seven times. (RASHBAM Bava Basra 100b)

15)[line 38]ומספדU'MISPED- and a privately owned place reserved for eulogizing family members

16)[line 41]אימתיה דרביהEIMSEI D'RABEI- [he has] reverence for his teacher (and therefore will recognize his signature)

17)[line 43]דקיום שטרותKIYUM SHETAROS

Mid'Oraisa, a Shtar or contract which was written legally and signed by witnesses is considered absolute proof. The Chachamim, out of fear of forgeries, required that every Shtar be validated ("Kiyum") in one of the following manners:

1.The witnesses themselves attest to the validity of their signatures.

2.Other witnesses who recognize the signatures attest to their validity.

3.The signatures are matched to those on a previously validated Shtar.

28b----------------------------------------28b

18)[line 1]אפוטרופוסAPOTROPOS- (O.F. seneschal) steward, manager of the household (RASHI Sukah 27a)

19)[line 13]היו מעלין מתרומה ליוחסיןHAYU MA'ALIN MI'TERUMAH L'YUCHASIN- they would verify a person [whose lineange was not known] as a Kohen based upon the fact that people apportion Terumah to him

20)[line 21]חזא באתריה דרבי יוסיCHAZA B'ASREI D'REBBI YOSI- he (Rebbi Elazar bar Tzadok) saw [people apportioning Terumah to the slave of a Kohen] in the place [that follows the Halachic rulings] of Rebbi Yosi

21)[line 24]מנפח אדםMENAPE'ACH ADAM- a person blows

22)[line 26]שנידשSHE'NIDASH- that was trampled

23)[line 31]אפוקי ממונא לא מפקינןAPUKEI MAMONA LO MAFKINAN- we do not take away a person's money [based on his testimony]

24)[line 34]בקצצהB'KETZATZAH- in a ceremony performed by family members when one of the family marries improperly, as sign of breaking family ties

25)[line 34]ומתנותU'MATANOS (MATNOS KEHUNAH)

See Background to 25:4.

26)[line 38]אהייאA'HAI- on which [of the above cases does Rebbi Yochanan say his ruling]

27)[line 41]מידק הוה דייקMEIDAK HAVAH DAYIK- he was meticulous in his perception

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