[24a - 23 lines; 24b - 49 lines]

1)[line 2]אשת אישESHES ISH- a married woman which is a matter of [sexual] prohibition; i.e. matters of sexual prohibition are treated with greater strictness than money matters

2)[line 9]לגומליןL'GOMLIN- let us suspect that they are repaying each other [by testifying falsely for each other]

3)[line 12]בתרומהTERUMAH

See Background to Kesuvos 16:44.

4)[line 13]להשיאו אשהL'HASI'O ISHAH- if one says I am a Kohen and my friend is a priest, he is believed to the extent of allowing him to eat Terumah but he is not believed to the extent of allowing him to marry a woman

5)[line 17]החמריןCHAMARIN- donkey-drivers (who have produce to sell)

6)[line 18]חדשCHADASH- new grain that has not had sufficient time to dry (RASHI, RABEINU TAM in Tosfos DH Sheli)

7)[line 18]מתוקןMESUKAN- fruits from which Terumos and Ma'asros were not separated

8)[line 20]מוחלפת השיטהMUCHLEFES HA'SHITAH- their opinions (in either the Beraisa or the Mishnah) were mistakenly cited and should be interchanged (based on Rashi Pesachim 55a DH Muchlefes)

9)[line 20]בדמאיDEMAI

(a)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" - "what is this?").

(b)Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").

(c)Rebbi Yehudah is lenient regarding Demai because most people tithe.

10)[last line]בשכלי אומנותוBESHE'KLEI UMANUSO- when his professional utensils are in his possession


11)[line 1]בשכלי אומנותו בידוBESHE'KLEI UMANUSO B'YADO- when his professional utensils are in his possession

12)[line 2]הקדרKADAR- a pottery maker

13)[line 4]הפנימיותHA'PENIMIYOS- if a potter (who is careful about Taharah) left his pots and went to drink, the inner ones are Tehor

14)[line 6]בשכלי אומנותו בידוBESHE'KLEI UMANUSO B'YADO- [the Beraisa refers to] when he has his tools of the trade with him

15)[line 6]ממשמשת בהןMEMASHMESHES BAHEN- everyone touches and feels them (to see whether or not they should buy them)

16)[line 11]דסמיכאD'SEMICHA- that they are close to the public thoroughfare

17)[line 11]חיפופי רשות הרביםCHIFUFEI RESHUS HA'RABIM- "rubbing pegs," pegs and large stones stuck into the ground as a barrier so that people and wagons will not rub against the walls at the side of Reshus ha'Rabim

18)[line 12]ואיבעית אימאV'IBA'IS EIMA- and if you wish you may say

19)[line 13]במעלין מתרומה ליוחסיןB'MA'ALIN MI'TERUMAH L'YUCHASIN- they argue about whether or not we may establish a person [with unknown lineage] as a Kohen based upon the fact that people apportion Terumah to him

20)[line 14]משטרותMI'SHETAROS- [do we establish a person with unknown lineage as a Kohen] based upon documents

21)[line 16]חתמתי עדCHASAMTI ED- if the document says, "I, Ploni the Kohen, sign as a witness," no one testifies about him

22)[line 16]מאן קא מסהיד עילויהMAN KA MAS'HID ILAVEI?- who will testify about him?

23)[line 17]לויתיLAVISI- I borrowed

24)[line 21]מנשיאות כפיםNESI'US KAPAYIM (BIRKAS KOHANIM)

The Kohanim are required to bless the people with the three-fold blessing, as described in Bamidbar 6:22-27. (The Gemara (Menachos 44a) refers to the three verses as three separate Mitzvos Aseh.) In the Beis ha'Mikdash the blessing was said with the Shem ha'Meforash (the Tetragrammaton, the Holy Name of HaSh-m). According to TOSFOS to Sotah 38a DH Harei Hu Omer, this is only true when there is Giluy Shechinah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Since there was no Giluy Shechinah after the passing of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohanim stopped saying Birkas Kohanim with the Shem ha'Meforash.

25)[line 24]דעון מיתה היאD'AVON MISAH HI- [the consumption of Terumah by a non-Kohen] is a sin punishable with death

26)[line 25]דאיסור עשהD'ISUR ASEH- [one who is not a priest who performs Birkas Kohanim transgresses only] the prohibition of a positive commandment

27)[line 27]דמיתאכלא בצנעאD'MIS'ACHLA B'TZIN'A- that it (Terumah) is eaten in privacy

28)[line 28]דבפרהסיאD'FARHESYA- [Birkas Kohanim,] which is done in public

29)[line 28]כולי האי לא מחציף אינש נפשיהKULEI HAI LO MICHTZIF INISH NAFSHEI- [since Birkas Kohanim is done in public, a non-Kohen] would not be so brazen [to perform Birkas Kohanim]

30)[line 35]גדולה חזקהGEDOLAH CHAZAKAH- the concept of Chazakah is powerful

31)[line 35]"ומבני...""UMI'BNEI..."- "And of the sons of the Kohanim were the sons of Chavayah.... They searched for their documents of lineage but they were not found, and they were banished from the Kehunah. Hatirshasa (Nechemyah) said to them that they may not eat from Kodshim until a Kohen arises to the Urim v'Tumim (to find out if they are genuine Kohanim)." (Ezra 2:61-63)

32)[line 42]בגולהBA'GOLAH- in Exile; i.e., outside of Eretz Yisrael

33)[line 43]בקדשי הגבולB'KODSHEI HA'GEVUL- sanctified food that is eaten in all of Eretz Yisrael, e.g. Terumah (see Background to Kidushin 79:12) and Chalah (see Background to 25:2)

34)[line 45]כיון דפרסי ידייהו אתי לאסוקינהוKEIVAN D'FARSEI YADAIHU ASI L'ASUKINHU- lit. they spread their hands; i.e. they say Birkas Kohanim

35)[line 46]דריע חזקייהוD'RI'A CHEZKAIHU- that there is reason to question their Chazakah