KESUVOS 21 (Yom Kippur) - Sponsored in memory of Freida Miller, by her son. May the Zechus of learning and supporting Torah bring him and his family a year of Berachah, good health, Nachas and continued spiritual growth.

[21a - 45 lines; 21b - 43 lines]

1)[line 7]קנפיק נכי ריבעא דממונאKA'NAFIK NAKI RIV'A D'MAMONA- three quarters (lit. less a quarter) of the money is being extracted [on the basis of one of the witnesses' testimony; we are relying on him totally on his own signature and partially on the other's signature]

2)[line 18]אחספאA'CHASPA- on a potsherd

3)[line 18]אמגלתאA'MEGILASA- on a scroll

4)[line 26]ואדחד דעמיהVE'AD'CHAD D'IMEI- and on the one who is with him (i.e. the other witness)

5)[line 27]אשרנוהי וקימנוהי כדחזיASHRENUHI V'KIYAMNUHI KID'CHAZI- we certified and validated the Shtar properly with Kiyum

6)[last line]לא תציתינהוLO TATZISINHU- do not listen (pay attention) to them


7)[line 2]שומשמיSHUMSHEMEI- sesame seeds

8)[line 5]דקלסהD'KALSAH- that his father praised it

9)[line 13]אשרתא דדייניASHARTA D'DAYANEI- confirmation of Kiyum written by the Beis Din

10)[line 18]עד נעשה דייןED NA'ASEH DAYAN- a witness can become a judge (in certain cases, one can serve both as a witness and a Dayan on the same case, such as for Kidush ha'Chodesh)

11)[line 34]מקודש החדשMEKUDASH HA'CHODESH - the declaration that Beis Din makes to proclaim the new month

(a)The Hebrew calendar month, which determines the Jewish holidays, begins with each new revolution of the moon, at the point after it wanes completely and begins to wax anew.

(b)When the Sanhedrin of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish "Supreme Court") convened in Eretz Yisrael, the new month was fixed and sanctified according to the testimony of witnesses. A person who sees the moon (as it begins to grow and is just visible) traveled to the Sanhedrin, or to a Beis Din appointed by the Sanhedrin, to testify. The place where the Beis Din convened to accept testimony was known as the Beis ha'Va'ad. Beis Din cross-examined the witnesses there, and when they were convinced of the accuracy of the testimonies, they announced the beginning of the new month.

(c)Today, mathematical calculations are used to determine the beginning of the new month. According to RAMBAM (Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 5:2) it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai to determine the beginning of the month mathematically when there is no Sanhedrin, and through testimony when there is one.

12)[line 34]שאין היחיד נאמן על ידי עצמוSHE'EIN HA'YACHID NE'EMAN AL YEDEI ATZMO- because one judge is not believed [to proclaim the new month] by himself

13)[line 42]וקרא ערערV'KARA IR'ER- and objections [about his fitness to be a Dayan] occurred (i.e. he was found to be unfit to be a Dayan)