[19a - 35 lines; 19b - 41 lines]

1)[line 1]אא''כ נעשה בגדולELA IM KEN NA'ASEH B'GADOL- unless all of the parties involved are adults

2)[line 5]לאמלוכיL'IMLUCHEI- to ask our advice

3)[line 6]ולא תתקטלוןV'LO SISKATLUN- and do not let yourselves be killed

4)[line 11]מודה בשטר שכתבו אין צריך לקיימוMODEH BI'SHTAR SHE'KASVO, EIN TZARICH L'KAIMO- when a debtor admits that he wrote a document of debt, the creditor need not call upon the witnesses to verify their signatures (even though the debtor claims that the document is not valid for another reason, e.g. the debt has already been collected).

5)[line 14]גנובא גנובי למה לךGENUVA GENUVEI LAMAH LACH?- Why do you say your ruling in a sneaky fashion, "like a thief," as if it is agreed upon by all of the Tana'im? Say openly that you rule like Rebbi Meir!

6)[line 17]וחותו לדינאV'CHUSU L'DINA- and [only then] can you go to court [with the document]

7)[line 28]לנושה בחבירו מנהL'NOSHEH B'CHAVEIRO MANEH- to one who loans to another person a Maneh (100 Zuz)

8)[last line]"[אם און בידך הרחיקהו] ואל תשכן באהליך עולה""[IM AVEN B'YADCHA HARCHIKEHU, V']AL TASHKEN B'OHALECHA AVLAH."- "[If iniquity is in your hand, put it far away, and] let not wickedness dwell in your tents." (Iyov 11:14)


9)[line 2]אמנה היו דברינוAMANAH HAYU DEVAREINU- the document that we signed (lit. our words) was written before any loan took place; the creditor intended to use this document in the future. The debtor, however, already put a lien on his properties should a loan take place (RASHI).

10)[line 3]כיון דעולה הואKEIVAN D'AVLAH HU- since it is an iniquity (a document that is forbidden to be written)

11)[line 8]ושטר פסיםV'SHTAR PASIM- (lit. and a document of appeasement) a document of debt written with no intention that any money exchange hands. The "creditor" in the document appeased the "debtor" to have this document written so that he could claim to be a rich man with many outstanding debts (SHITAH YESHANAH, cited by the SHITAH MEKUBETZES).

12)[line 11]דמשהי ליה אפשיטי דספראD'MASH'HEI LEI A'PESHITEI D'SAFRA- where he (the creditor) keeps the document as a security for the payment of the expenses of the scribe (that are the responsibility of the debtor, but often the creditor pays them since the debtor has no money. In that case, the creditor may collect the extra money from the debtor after the loan has been repaid.).

13)[line 12]שאינו מוגהSHE'EINO MUGAH- (lit. that has not been corrected) that has mistakes

14)[line 18]מודעא היו דברינוMODA'AH HAYU DEVAREINU- we signed the document after the seller (or husband in the case of a Get) announced to us that the impending sale (or Get) would be made under duress and should not take legal effect, and after he convinced us of his words.

15)[line 30]למיעקר סהדותייהוL'MI'AKAR SAHADUSAIHU- to invalidate (lit. uproot) their testimony

16)[line 40]תרי ותרי נינהוTREI U'TREI NINHU

(a)When two pairs of witnesses ("Trei u'Trei") contradict each other (in our Gemara, the witnesses who signed the authenticating document and the live witnesses), a situation of doubt (Sfeika) is created. The Amora'im argue as to whether we may follow the Chazakah (the situation as it stood until now) in order to resolve the doubt.

(b)The opinion that rules "Trei u'Trei Sfeika d'Oraisa" holds that an absolute situation of doubt is created by the contradiction. It is impossible to resolve the doubt even on the basis of a Chazakah (i.e., the maintenance of the status quo). The opinion that argues and rules "Trei u'Trei Sfeika d'Rabanan" holds that the Torah allows us to rely on the Chazakah to resolve the doubt that is created by the contradictory testimonies of the two pairs of witnesses. Only mid'Rabanan are we Machmir to consider the situation a Safek.


(a)If two witnesses testify to a crime or an event and a later set of witnesses contradict their testimony by saying that the crime or event did not take place exactly as the first set of witnesses testified, all of the witnesses are termed Edim Mukchashim (contradictory witnesses), and Beis Din cannot use either testimony.

(b)If, however, two witnesses testify to a crime or an event and a later set of witnesses disqualify their testimony by saying that the first set of witnesses were with them in a different place at the time that the first set of witnesses claim that the act took place, the first witnesses are termed Edim Zomemin (conspiring witnesses). The Torah commands that the second set of witnesses be believed, rather than the first. In general, Edim Zomemim are punished with the punishment they tried to cause. (Devarim 19:16-21; see MISHNAH Makos 5a.)