[3a - 37 lines; 3b - 32 lines]

1)[line 1]זימניןZIMNIN- sometimes

2)[line 1]מיעגנא ויתבהMI'AGNA V'YASVAH- she will remain unmarried

3)[line 4]מינסבאMINSEVA- she will get married

4)[line 4]ממזריםMAMZERIM- illegitimate offspring of those whose union is punishable by Kares (early death; see Background to Yevamos 8:31), who may not marry a Jew or Jewess of purer lineage

5)[line 7]כל דמקדש אדעתא דרבנן מקדשKOL D'MEKADESH A'DA'ATA D'RABANAN MEKADESH - One who Betroths does so Contingent upon the Approval of the Chachamim

(a)Under certain circumstances, the Chachamim render a betrothal which is valid mid'Oraisa retroactively annulled. They have this ability due to the principle of "Kol d'Mekadesh a'Da'ata d'Rabanan Mekadesh." This principle states that when one betroths a woman (see Background to 2:1), it may be assumed that he does so bearing in mind that if at any time, for any reason, the Chachamim do not approve of his Kidushin, than it should become retroactively invalid (see Insights).

(b)This jurisdiction covers even a case in which one makes it clear prior to his marriage that he does not wish his betrothal subject to the approval of the Chachamim, as no individual has the authority to so exempt himself (RITVA). It is due to this principle, however, that the universal custom in Klal Yisrael is to pronounce every Kidushin performed to be "k'Das Moshe v'Yisrael" - "in accordance with Torah law and Rabbinic protocol" (Rashi and other Rishonim).

(c)Situations in which the Chachamim take such a measure include those in which they deem it necessary in order to protect the husband or wife from the effects of a Get or Kidushin which may cause them emotional torment. Some Rishonim maintain that Kol d'Mekadesh a'Da'ata d'Rabanan Mekadesh comes into play in certain cases in which evidence exists that the husband has died, although it is not up to the standards required mid'Oraisa to declare the marriage over (RASHI Shabbos 155b).

(d)A Kidushin is generally retroactively uprooted only when a Get (divorce document) has been granted, and yet is not valid mid'Oraisa. (RASHI, RASHBA, and other Rishonim). There are certain circumstances in which the Chachamim see fit to annul the Kidushin immediately (as opposed to retroactively) due to that which the Kidushin were performed improperly. In such cases a Get need not have been presented (see, for example, Yevamos 90b). Even a Kidushin accomplished through marital relations can be uprooted retroactively by the Chachamim, since "Shavyuha Rabanan l'Ve'ilaso Be'ilas Znus" - "The Rabanan transform his relations into relations of amoral behavior." There are those who understand that it is not necessary to invoke the principle of "Kol d'Mekadesh" in such cases; since the Kidushin has been carried out unjustly, the Chachamim have the ability to directly override the Torah law (see TOSFOS to Bava Basra 48b DH Teinach).

6)[line 8]אפקעינהוAFKE'INHU- they [retroactively] removed

7)[line 9]תינח קדיש בכספאTEINACH KADISH B'CHASPA (HEFKER BEIS DIN HEFKER - The Ability of a Jewish Court to Declare Property Ownerless)

(a)The Chachamim have the authority, when they deem it necessary, to declare any property Hefker (ownerless). The Rishonim and Acharonim discuss whether Beis Din have the ability to merely remove ownership from any given item, or if they can even place the object in the another's possession.

(b)In our Gemara, Ravina understands that through the application of this principle, the Chachamim can retroactively undo any marriage predicated upon a betrothal established through a gift of monetary value (see Background to 2:1:a:1). This is accomplished by declaring that the object of value was not his to give, resulting in her having received a standard gift rather than having become betrothed.

8)[line 10]קדיש בביאהKADISH B'VI'AH- [but if] he betrothed her through relations (see Background to 2:1:a:3)

9)[line 10]שויוה רבנן לבעילתו בעילת זנותSHAVYUHA RABANAN L'VE'ILASO BE'ILAS ZNUS- the Rabanan transform his relations into relations of amoral behavior (see above, entry #5)

10)[line 30]לא שנוLO SHANU- we did not learn [that a Besulah must marry on Wednesday]

11)[line 31]מתקנת עזרא ואילךMI'TAKANAS EZRA VA'EILACH- from the enactment of [the Beis Din of] Ezra ha'Sofer (the leader of those who returned from the Babylonian exile to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash) and onward

12)[line 34]קודם תקנת עזרא, מאי דהוה הוה!KODEM TAKANAS EZRA, MAI D'HAVAH HAVAH!- before the enactment of [the Beis Din of] Ezra ha'Sofer, what was was! [How is this piece of historical information relevant to the Halachah taught in our Gemara?]

13)[line 36]האידנאHA'IDNA- nowadays

14)[last line]הא בעינן שקדו!HA BA'INAN SHAKDU!- [How can a marriage take place on Sunday, Monday, or Tuesday?] we require "Shakdu" (the Rabbinic decree which states that a marriage should take place at least three days after Shabbos so that those preparing the meal should have enough time to do a respectable job)!

15)[last line]דטריח ליהD'TARI'ACH LEI- (the Gemara answers that) [it is permitted to marry at the beginning of the week only] when [the groom] made the necessary arrangements [for the wedding feast before Shabbos]


16)[line 1]מאי שקדו?MAI SHAKDU?- Although the Gemara earlier (2b) described this Rabbinic decree, it was there a surmise of the meaning of the teaching of Shmuel as inferred from our Mishnah. This would not be sufficient to ask a question of Rav Shmuel bar Yitzchak, who was, like Shmuel, an Amora. Our Gemara therefore assumed that there must be a source for this decree in a Mishnah or Beraisa, and asks for this source.

17)[line 9]לא מיחו בידם חכמיםLO MICHU B'YADAM CHACHAMIM- the Chachamim did not protest against their action [although they did not condone it to begin with]

18)[line 10]מחמת האונסMACHMAS HA'ONES- due to the coercion (which will be explained in the Gemara)

19)[line 11]מפרישיןMAFRISHIN- we separate [so they are not secluded with one another]

20)[line 11]לילי שבת תחלהLEILEI SHABBOS TECHILAH- when their first relations will be on Friday night

21)[line 12]חבורהCHABURAH- a wound [when he tears the membrane of the Besulim (hymen)]

22)[line 13]אמריAMREI- [the Nochri governing body] said

23)[line 14]''נהגו''? לגמרי ניעקריה!"NAHAGU"? LEGAMREI NI'AKREI!- [the only reason why marriages were performed on Tuesday was that] "they accustomed themselves"? [The establishment of marriage on Wednesday] should be completely uprooted!

24)[line 15]תיבעל להגמון תחלהTIBA'EL L'HEGMON TECHILAH- she should have relations with the governor first [before her husband]

25)[line 17]מסרן נפשייהו לקטלאMASRAN NAFSHAYHU LI'KETALA- give themselves over to death [rather than become forbidden to their husbands]

26)[line 18]אונס שריONES SHARI- [a woman who is a victim of] rape is permitted [to her husband]

27)[line 19]פרוצותPERUTZOS- immodest woman [who will willingly submit to the governor when they hear that they will subsequently be permitted to their husbands - in which case they will no longer be permitted]

28)[line 19]כהנותKOHANOS- the wives of Kohanim [who may not return to their husbands after rape, due that which they become a Zonah (51b)]

29)[line 19](גזירה) [שמדא] עבידא דבטלא(GEZEIRAH) [SHAMDA] AVIDA D'VITLA- (the decree) [of religious persecution] will eventually be nullified

30)[line 20]מקמיMI'KAMEI- in the face of

31)[line 22]לא עקר נפשיהLO AKAR NAFSHEI- [the governor] will not stir himself [from his residence to check if a marriage is taking place]

32)[line 25]תוSU- furthermore

33)[line 26]שר צבאSAR TZEVA- the general of an army

34a)[line 27]אי דאתי וחליףIY D'ASI V'CHALIF- if he is coming and leaving [(a) after Wednesday (RASHI); (b) before the end of Wednesday (TOSFOS DH Iy)]

b)[line 27]ליעכב!LI'AKEV!- let [the wedding] wait [until a) the following Wednesday (RASHI); b) the end of Wednesday (TOSFOS DH Iy)]!

35)[line 28]אספרווא דידיהISPARVA DIDEI- his forerunners [who stay ahead of the main body of the army to scout for food]

36a)[line 30]פתו אפויPITO AFUY- the bread [for] his [wedding feast] was baked [in which case it will not last]

b)[line 30]טבחו טבוחTIVCHO TAVU'ACH- the animal [for] his [wedding feast] was slaughtered [in which case it will soon spoil]

c)[line 30]יינו מזוגYAYNO MAZUG- the wine [for] his [wedding feast] was diluted with water [in which case it will soon spoil]