[28a - 53 lines; 28b - 15 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 28a [line 12]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6
 Gemara [last line]:
The words "Arba Se'ah Gozalos" ארבע סאה גוזלות
should be "Arba'im Se'ah Gozalos" ארבעים סאה גוזלות as in Pesachim 57a and in the Shitah Mekubetzes here #22 — see Chok Nasan
 Rashi 28a DH Ela Mai ד"ה אלא מאי:
The words "Kodem she'Hifrish" קודם שהפריש
should be "Kodem she'He'eshir" קודם שהעשיר (RASHASH)
 Gemara 28b [line 2]:
The words "Elishama ben Fichai" אלישמע בן פיכאי
should be "Yishmael ben Fiabi" ישמעאל בן פיאבי (as is found in the manuscript of the Shitah Mekubetzes printed by Rav Ilan, and in Rabeinu Chananel to Pesachim 57a. As the Mishnah relates (Sotah 49a), "When Rebbi Yishmael ben Fiabi רבי ישמעאל בן פיאבי passed away, the splendor of the priesthood ceased to exist" (See Insights)
 Gemara [line 11]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6 (as is found in Pesachim)
 Gemara [line 13]:
"di'Chesiv Im Keves Im Ez" דכתיב אם כבש אם עז
Rashi's text of our Sugya did not include the words "Im Ez" אם עז (however, Rashi's text to Pesachim 57b does include them, and Rabeinu Gershom explains them in our Sugya — Chok Nasan, Mar'eh Kohen)
1)[line 3]בעלי חיים נדחיםBA'ALEI CHAYIM NIDACHIM
2)[line 3]קדושת דמים נדחהKEDUSHAS DAMIM MADCHEH- and an animal whose value is consecrated and not its body becomes forever unfit for the Mizbe'ach
3)[line 4]דחוי מעיקרא הוי דחויDICHUY ME'IKARA HEVEI DICHUY- even if the animal was unfit at the time it was consecrated, (i.e., there was no moment that it was an acceptable Korban), it becomes Nidcheh (irrevocably rejected — Background to Kerisus 27:9). The dissenting opinion rules that an animal becomes Nidcheh only if the animal became unfit after it was once fit to be sacrificed (Sukah 33b).
4)[line 15]הגרלה אינה מעכבתHAGRALAH EINAH ME'AKEVES (GORAL)
(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, a Goral (lottery) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats (Vayikra 16:7-10). One (the Sa'ir la'Sh-m) is offered as a Korban Chatas ha'Nisraf and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:15); the other (the Sa'ir la'Azazel) is dispatched ("Mishtale'ach") to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death (Vayikra 16:21-22).
(b)A strip of crimson wool is tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it is led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26). The remains of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach are Asur b'Hana'ah.
(c)Before it is dispatched to Azazel, the Kohen Gadol performs Semichah upon the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach, confessing the sins of all of the people while doing so. According to Rebbi Yehudah, this confession achieves atonement for all of the people, for all sins except sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. According to Rebbi Shimon, this confession achieves atonement for all of the people except the Kohanim, for all sins except sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav. (The second confession over the Par of the Kohen Gadol provides the Kohanim atonement for all other sins besides sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav.)
(d)Our Gemara states that Rebbi Shimon rules that the casting of lots is not indispensable for the sanctification of the Se'irim of Yom ha'Kipurim.
5a)[line 15]אין הקינין מתפרשות אלאEIN HA'KININ MISPARSHOS ELA...- the bird offerings only become designated (which one is an Olah and which one is a Chatas) at the time they are bought by the owner or at the time they are offered by the Kohanim
b)[line 15]קיניןKININ (OLAS HA'OF / CHATAS HA'OF)
(a)OLAS HA'OF - The offering of the Olas ha'Of consists of four procedures:
1.MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 97:9) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
2.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3.HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
4.HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines — Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire. (See Background to Chulin 123:17 for more information.)
(b)CHATAS HA'OF - See Background to Kerisus 26:13b
6)[line 38]ותסברא מתניתא מתקנתא היא?V'TISBERA MASNISA MESAKANTA HI?- Do you think that the Beraisa is properly arranged?
7)[line 41]תני "ואח''כ לקח ואמר"TENI, "V'ACHAR KACH LAKACH V'AMAR"- the Beraisa should be learned as follows: A poor person who transgressed the prohibition of being Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Kerisus 2:10) separated money with which to buy his bird offerings. If, after becoming wealthy, he bought the bird offerings and designated which one would be for his Chatas and which one would be for his Olah, he should add on to the value of the Chatas to bring an animal as his Korban Chatas, but he cannot add on to the value of the Olah to bring his Korban Olah.
8)[line 43]לאיי!LE'AYEI!- indeed!
9)[line 46]כבשיםKEVASIM- sheep
10)[line 46]העזיםHA'IZIM- the goats
11)[line 46]שהם מובחרים מהםSHE'HEM MUVCHARIM MEHEM- that they (Kevasim) are preferable to them (Izim)
12)[line 50]אם זכה הבן לפני הרבIM ZACHAH HA'BEN LIFNEI HA'RAV- (a) if he merited to learn successfully from his teacher (RABEINU GERSHOM); (b) if he learned most of his Torah from a particular teacher (RAMBAM)
13)[line 51]ארבע צווחות צווחה עזרהARBA TZEVACHOS TZAVCHAH AZARAH- the Azarah cried out four cries
14)[line 6]כריך שיראי על ידיהKARICH SHIRA'EI AL YADEI- he would wrap silk on his hand
15)[line 7]מאי סליקא ליה?MAI SELIKA LEI?- What was his fate?
16)[line 8]גדיא יאיGADYA YA'I- (a) a goat tastes better than a lamb (RASHI to Pesachim 57a); (b) a goat is more fit to be offered as a Korban than a lamb (RABEINU GERSHOM)
17)[line 9]ייסק לתמידאYEISAK L'TEMIDA- it should have been chosen to be offered as the Korban Tamid
18)[line 10]קוצו לידיה דימינאKOTZU L'YADEI D'YAMINA- cut off his right hand
19)[line 11][שקלה] למטרפסיה[SHAKLAH] L'MATRAPSEI- he received his due (in Olam ha'Zeh)
HADRAN ALACH HA'MEVI ASHAM U'SELIKA LAH MASECHES KERISUS
TAM V'NISHLAM SHEVACH LA'KEL BOREI OLAM