THOSE EXEMPT FROM OLEH V'YORED
Answer #2: Rather, he learns as follows.
(Beraisa - R. Yirmeyah): It says "he cannot afford." This applies to one who can become poor or rich. It excludes a Nasi or a Mashu'ach, who never become poor.
A Nasi is never poor. "Hash-m Elokav" teaches that only Hash-m is above him;
A Mashu'ach is never poor. "The Kohen who is greater than his brothers" teaches that he is greater in beauty, strength, Chachmah and wealth;
Others say '"that is greater from his brothers" - if he is not wealthiest, the other Kohanim give to him money to make him the wealthiest.
Question (Ravina): If a Nasi transgressed (something for which one brings Oleh v'Yored) and became a Metzora, what is the law?
Is he exempt only while he is considered Nasi, but now he is liable?
Or, since before he was unable to bring the Korban, he never brings it?
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): He pays from his treasury, and not from yours! (Rashi - his treasury never runs out, so he is exempt; Ramah - since he must take from his own wealth, he cannot currently collect taxes, he is liable like a regular rich person, who could wax poor).
(Beraisa - R. Akiva): A Mashu'ach is exempt from all of these.
Question (Rava): What is R. Akiva's reason?
Answer (Rava): "This (Minchah) is the Korban of Aharon and his children" is the only obligatory Minchah of a Kohen Gadol.
Question: Perhaps this excludes him only from the Korban of the most destitute, i.e. a Minchah, but he brings the Oleh v'Yored of a (moderately) poor or rich person!
Rejection: "The Kohen will atone for the sin that he sinned me'Achas me'Eleh" - one who gets atonement through (any) one of these (a Minchah, bird or animal), gets atonement through all. One who does not atone through (any) one of these, does not atone through any of them.
Question: If so, we should also say "Ki Yesham l'Achas me'Eleh" - one who is liable for (any) one of these (Aveiros for which one brings Oleh v'Yored), is liable for all. One who is not liable for (any) one of these, is not liable for any of them!
(Mishnah - R. Akiva): A Nasi is liable for all, except for Shevu'as ha'Edus.
Answer (Abaye and Rava): The Tana expounds "me'Achas". He does not expound "l'Achas."
Question: Why does he expound only "me'Achas"?
Answer: The Torah wrote this at the end, regarding the Minchah, to teach that anyone who can bring the Minchah (this excludes a Kohen Gadol) can bring the others;
If the Halachah were that one who is exempt from one of these is liable for the others, "l'Achas" should have been written regarding an animal or bird.
THE DIFFERENT CHATA'OS
(Mishnah): A commoner brings a Se'irah or Kisvah for any Mitzvah punishable by Kares (b'Mezid) and a Chatas (b'Shogeg);
The Nasi brings a (male) Sa'ir. A Mashu'ach or Beis Din brings Parim.
For idolatry, a commoner, Nasi or Mashu'ach brings a Se'irah. Beis Din brings a Par for an Olah and a (male) Sa'ir for a Chatas.
A commoner or Nasi brings Asham Taluy. A Mashu'ach or Beis Din is exempt.
A commoner, Nasi or Mashu'ach brings Asham Vadai. Beis Din is exempt.
R. Shimon says, for Shevu'as ha'Edus, Shevu'as Bituy, or Tum'ah (of the Mikdash and Kodshim), Beis Din is exempt, and a commoner or Nasi is liable;
A Mashu'ach is liable for either Shevu'ah. He is exempt for Tum'ah;
Whoever is liable brings the standard Oleh v'Yored;
R. Eliezer says, a Nasi brings a Sa'ir.
(Gemara - Beraisa - R. Shimon): The general rule is, whenever a commoner brings Asham Taluy, a Nasi does also. A Mashu'ach or Beis Din is exempt;
Whenever a commoner brings Asham Vadai, a Nasi or Mashu'ach does also. Beis Din is exempt;
For Shevu'as ha'Edus, Shevu'as Bituy, or Tum'ah of the Mikdash and Kodshim, Beis Din is exempt. A commoner, Nasi or Mashu'ach is liable (for at least some of these);
A Nasi is exempt for Shevu'as ha'Edus, and a Mashu'ach is exempt for Tum'ah;
A Nasi is like a commoner regarding Oleh v'Yored. A Mashu'ach or Beis Din is exempt.
Question: The Beraisa contradicts itself!
It exempts a Mashu'ach for Tum'ah. This implies that he is liable for either Shevu'ah;
Then it says that a Nasi is like a commoner regarding Oleh v'Yored, but a Mashu'ach or Beis Din is exempt;
Just like Beis Din is exempt from all of them, also a Mashu'ach!
Answer (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): A Mashu'ach is exempt from the cheapest Korban (a Minchah), but not from a bird or animal (if he is moderately poor or rich).
R. Shimon agrees with R. Akiva (who totally exempts a Mashu'ach) in one respect, and argues in another:
He agrees that he is exempt from bringing a Minchah, but not from a bird or animal.
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): However, a Mashu'ach is exempt for Tum'ah...
Question (Chizkiyah): What is R. Shimon's reason?
Answer #1 (Chizkiyah): "That soul will be cut off from the Tzibur" refers to one whose Korban is like that of the Tzibur;
This excludes a Mashu'ach, who brings a different Korban.
Question: Also a Nasi brings a different Korban!
Answer: A Nasi gets atonement with the Tzibur (through the Sa'ir) on Yom Kipur.
Question: If so, all Kohanim should be exempt, for their atonement on Yom Kipur is through the Par!
Answer: Regular Kohanim get atonement with the Tzibur (when Parim for mistaken Hora'ah are brought).
Objection: A Mashu'ach also gets atonement with the Tzibur!
Answer #2 (Rava): The verse discusses one who is liable for sin like (a minority of) the Tzibur (i.e. for Shegagah alone. This excludes a Mashu'ach.)
R. ELIEZER'S OPINION
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): A Nasi brings a Sa'ir...
(R. Yochanan): R. Eliezer says this only regarding Tum'ah of the Mikdash and Kodshim, which are Chayavei Kerisus, just like sins punishable by a fixed Chatas.
Support (Rav Papa): Surely R. Eliezer does not say this regarding every Oleh v'Yored!
The Sa'ir of a Nasi and the Par of a Mashu'ach are in place of the Chatas of a commoner. If R. Eliezer held that a Nasi brings a Sa'ir for every Oleh v'Yored, he should say also that a Mashu'ach brings a Par for (every one, including) Tum'ah!
Since he did not say this, he must hold that a Nasi brings only for Tum'ah, for which a Mashu'ach is exempt.
Question (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Noson): Perhaps R. Eliezer said this for every Oleh v'Yored. He did not mention a Mashu'ach, because he holds like R. Akiva, that a Mashu'ach is exempt for all of them!
Answer (Rav Papa): R. Akiva said only that he does not bring Oleh v'Yored, but he brings a Par.
(R. Yochanan): R. Eliezer admits that a Nasi does not bring an Asham (Taluy).
(A reciter of Beraisos): An Asham Taluy is brought for Tum'ah of the Mikdash and Kodshim.
Question (Rav Sheshes): Your Beraisa like R. Eliezer. Because they are Chayavei Kerisus and a Nasi brings a Sa'ir, an Asham Taluy is also brought for them. (We do not bring Asham Taluy for Aveiros for which Asham Taluy is brought (8b). Regarding a Nasi, it is not like an Aveirah of Asham Taluy.)
R. Yochanan taught that R. Eliezer admits that a Nasi does not bring an Asham Taluy!
This is left difficult.
ONE WHO WAS DEMOTED
(Mishnah): If a Mashu'ach sinned, and then he was removed from his position, or if a Nasi sinned and was dethroned, the Kohen brings a Par, the Nasi brings a Sa'ir;
If they sinned after they were demoted, the Kohen brings a Par, the Nasi is like a commoner.