HORAYOS 5 (20 NISAN) - dedicated in memory of Rabbi Kornfeld's great-aunt, Malka Gitel bas Reb Yakov Mordechai (Malvina Marmorstein), who took her nephew, David Kornfeld, into her home and raised him like her own child after the Holocaust.

[5a - 50 lines; 5b - 48 lines]

1)[line 2]שעיריםSE'IRIM- goats

2)[line 15]הוריותHORAYOS- rulings

3)[line 42]חלבCHELEV- See Background to Horayos 4:20.

4)[line 42]נותרNOSAR

(a)Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time within which it may be eaten must be burned (Vayikra 19:6).

(b)One who intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Nosar is liable for Kares (ibid. 19:8); if he eats it unintentionally, he must offer a Korban Chatas.

5)[line 43]למתעסקMIS'ASEK

(a)A person must bring a Korban Chatas for desecrating Shabbos only when he does a Melachah b'Shogeg, that is, mistakenly not knowing that the day is Shabbos or not knowing that the action that he did is a Melachah that is prohibited on Shabbos. However, a person who is Mis'asek, i.e. who does a completely different action from that which he intended to do, incurs no punishment whatsoever. (See Shabbos Chart #14, where the differences between Shogeg and Mis'asek are explained.)

(b)A Mis'asek is likewise exempt from bringing a Korban Chatas for any prohibition; with the exception of Chelev and Arayos, since he enjoyed physical benefit (and it is therefore considered as if he had intent - RASHI to Sanhedrin 62b).

6)[line 45]לגרירהGERIRAH- lit. dragging; i.e. that the tribes who did not sin are dragged along with those that did. Therefore, despite not having sinned, they must bring offerings of their own, as Rebbi Yehudah taught in the Mishnah.

7)[line 46]אורחיה דקרא הואORCHEI DI'KERA HU- it is the natural usage (lit. way) of the verse (and does not exclude anything)

8)[line 46]מעיני דפלניאM'EINEI D'PELANYA- [as people say, it was hidden] from the eyes of so-and-so


9)[line 5]רחמנאRACHMANA- lit. the Merciful One; HaSh-m

10)[line 14]מייתוMAISU- do they bring

11)[line 21]תמניאTEMANYA- eight

12)[line 32]למה לי למיתנאLAMAH LI L'MISNA- why is it necessary to teach

13a)[line 41]"וַיַּעֲמֹד יְהוֹשָׁפָט בִּקְהַל יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלַיִם, (נכח חצר בית ה') [בְּבֵית ה'; לִפְנֵי הֶחָצֵר] הַחֲדָשָׁה""VA'YA'AMOD YEHOSHAFAT BI'KEHAL YEHUDAH VI'YERUSHALAYIM [BE'VEIS HASH-M, LIFNEI HE'CHATZER] HA'CHADASHAH" - "And Yehoshafat stood in the assembly of Yehudah and Yerushalayim in the House of HaSh-m, in front of the New Courtyard" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 20:5) (HASH-M SAVES YEHOSHAFAT)

(a)Yehoshafat, King of Yehudah, came under attack by Bnei Moav, the Bnei Amon, and the "Amonim" (who were actually Amalekim disguised as Amonim -Midrash cited by RASHI and RADAK ).Yehoshafat, frightened by the size of the attacking army, ordered the inhabitants of Yehudah to fast. They then assembled in the Beis ha'Mikdash, men, women, and children, and the king among them, to beseech HaSh-m for salvation.

(b)A prominent Levi from the sons of Asaf received a Divine message to pass on to the people. He instructed them to go to war and, like at Yam Suf, they were to march to the battle-front and watch the salvation of HaSh-m, but not to participate.

(c)Early the next morning, after exhorting the people to have faith in HaSh-m, the troops marched out towards the enemy, singing praises to HaSh-m as they marched. The moment they began their exuberant song, HaSh-m set up ambushers against Amon, Mo'av, and Har Se'ir (Edom/Amalek), who began to strike them down. Amon and Mo'av, who attributed the ambushes to Edom, first set about destroying them, before they began killing each other.

(d)Yehoshafat and his army arrived on the scene only to find the numerous corpses of the enemy already lying on the ground. They spent three days stripping them of all their valuables and gathering all the booty from their camp. On the fourth day, they assembled in Emek Berachah to bless HaSh-m.

(e)When the surrounding nations heard that HaSh-m was fighting on behalf of the Jewish People, they were afraid, and Yehoshafat enjoyed peace for many years.

(f)The Gemara, commenting on the expression "the New Courtyard," explains that in fact the Courtyard was not new at all, but that Yehoshafat and the Sanhedrin had just issued a new decree forbidding a Tevul Yom (see next entry) to enter there. (By Torah Law, a Tevul Yom may not enter Machaneh Shechinah (the Azarah); this decree extended the prohibition to other parts of Har ha'Bayis (Machaneh Leviyah).)

b)[line 42]טבול יוםTEVUL YOM

(a)A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that was Tamei and then immersed in a Mikvah. This is the first stage in the process of purification from any Tum'ah. The second stage requires waiting for the following night to fall, at which point the person or utensil will become completely Tahor.

(b)The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; the person or utensil is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei whatsoever.

14)[line 44]איתילידISYALID- was born

15)[line 45]דמתקריית קהלD'MISKARYAS KAHAL- that you will be called a congregation