1)

(a)What does Rava say in connection with an unmarried woman about whom a rumor has spread that she behaves immorally? To which sort of man is the rumor referring?

(b)What is his reason?

(c)Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Akiva or Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri argue in the following Beraisa. Like which Tana does Rava hold?

1)

(a)Rava rules that if a rumor has spread that an unmarried woman behaves immorally with a Nochri or an Eved we ignore it (and she remains permitted to marry a Kohen) ...

(b)... because the rumor merely implies that people saw them playing around in the street (but no more that).

(c)Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Akiva or Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri argue in the following Beraisa. Rava holds like Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri.

2)

(a)What does Rebbi Meir in the Beraisa say about a woman who eats in the street, who walks proudly in the street with her head held high or who nurses her baby in the street?

(b)According to Rebbi Akiva, she does not leave her husband unless the women are talking about her. Which women?

(c)What does Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri comment on Rebbi Akiva's ruling?

(d)How does he extrapolate his own opinion from the Pasuk in Ki-Setzei "Ki Matza Bah Ervas Davar" (regarding a Get) and the Pasuk in Shoftim (regarding testimony) "Al-Pi Shenayim Edim ... Yakum Davar"?

2)

(a)Rebbi Meir in the Beraisa rules that a woman who eats in the street, who walks proudly in the street with her head in the air or who nurses her baby in the street must leave her husband.

(b)According to Rebbi Akiva, she does not leave husband unless the women who spin by the light of the moon and who discuss all the juicy items of local news, are talking about her.

(c)Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri comments that according to Rebbi Akiva, no woman will remain married, seeing as all it needs to separate her from her husband is some nasty person who has taken a dislike to them, to initiate a rumor.

(d)He extrapolates his own opinion from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Ki Matza Bah Ervas Davar" ( Ki-Setzei (in connection with a Get) and "Al-Pi Shenayim Edim ... Yakum Davar" in Shoftim (in connection with testimony) which teaches us that Beis-Din only have the right to force a woman to leave her husband for something definite, based on he testimony of two witnesses (but not as a result of a mere rumor).

3)

(a)What does the Tana of the Beraisa mean when he says that we ignore ...

1. ... 'Be'ulah'?

2. ... 'Nesu'ah'?

3. ... 'Arusah'?

(b)How do we reconcile these Halachos with our Mishnah 'Yatza Shemah b'Ir Mekudeshes, Harei Zu Mekudeshes'?

(c)What do the case of a rumor that a woman became betrothed but the name of the man is not mentioned and a rumor that she became betrothed to a specific man in another town, have in common?

(d)What about a rumor that ...

1. ... a woman is a Mamzeres or a Shifchah?

2. ... someone declared his property Hekdesh or Hefker?

3)

(a)When the Tana of the Beraisa says that we ignore ...

1. ... 'Be'ulah' he means that an unmarried girl is not forbidden to marry a Kohen Gadol on the basis of a mere rumor that she had relations with a man.

2. ... 'Nesu'ah' that a woman who is assumed to be unmarried is not considered to be married on the basis of a mere rumor that she is.

3. ... 'Arusah' he means that we do not consider a woman whom we believed to be single, to be betrothed on the basis of a mere rumor that she has been betrothed for some time.

(b)The difference between these cases and our Mishnah 'Yatza Shemah b'Ir Mekudeshes, Harei Zu Mekudeshes' is that our Mishnah speaks when people actually saw the candles lit, the couches spread, and guests coming and going, a clear indication that a betrothal was indeed taking place.

(c)The case of a rumor that a woman became betrothed but the name of the man is not mentioned and that of a rumor that she became betrothed to a specific man in another town have in common that they are additional examples of rumors that we ignore.

(d)Neither do we contend with the rumor that ...

1. ... a woman is a Mamzeres or a Shifchah.

2. ... someone declared his property Hekdesh or Hefker.

4)

(a)What is wrong the Beraisa which, describing the rumor of 'Mekudeshes' in our Mishnah, writes 've'Omros P'lonis Miskadeshes Hayom'?

(b)How do we therefore amend it?

(c)In a similar statement, Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan adds 'Amru Davar, Zehu Kol; Lo Amru Davar, Zehu Amasla'. If they didn't say anything, surely it cannot be called an Amasla. So what is Rebbi Yochanan coming to teach us with this statement?

(d)Rebbi Yochanan comes to preclude the opinion of Rabah bar Rav Huna. What did Rabah bar Rav Huna say?

4)

(a)What is wrong with the Beraisa which, describing the rumor of 'Mekudeshes' in our Mishnah, writes 've'Omros Plonis Miskadeshes Hayom' (meaning that she is about to become betrothed today) is how we know that the betrothal actually took place.

(b)We therefore amend it to 'Plonis Niskadshah Hayom' (meaning that she became betrothed today).

(c)In a similar statement, Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan adds 'Amru Davar, Zehu Kol; Lo Amru Davar, Zehu Amasla'. If they didn't say anything, it cannot be called an Amasla. So what he meant to say is that it is only if the rumor did not spread independently (without an Amasla) that we ignore it, but not if it did, in which case an Amasla that comes into effect only later will not break it.

(d)Rebbi Yochanan comes to preclude the opinion of Rabah bar Rav Huna who says that as long as the Amasla emerges within ten days, it breaks the rumor retroactively.

5)

(a)Rebbi Aba Amar Rav Huna Amar Rav said that a mere rumor is insufficient to send a woman away from her husband. What then, is required?

(b)On what grounds do we refute Rebbi Aba Amar Rav Huna Amar Rav's statement?

(c)So what did Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel therefore add to the statement of Rebbi Aba Amar Rav Huna Amar Rav?

(d)In connection with the previous ruling, Abaye asked Rav Yosef whether a rumor can be negated. What are the two ways of explaining this She'eilah?

5)

(a)Rebbi Aba Amar Rav Huna Amar Rav said that a mere rumor is insufficient to send a woman away from her husband unless the rumor can be traced back from one witness to another, until it stops at a firm testimony (two witnesses), who actually saw the act taking place.

(b)We refute Rebbi Aba Amar Rav Huna Amar Rav's statement on the grounds that surely classifies as a clear-cut testimony (and not just a rumor).

(c)Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel therefore added to the statement of Rebbi Aba Amar Rav Huna Amar Rav that each witness received testimony from the one before him, but that, when it came to the crunch, all the witnesses (responsible for the rumor) had gone abroad.

(d)In connection with the previous ruling, Abaye asked Rav Yosef whether a rumor can be negated, which can either that women and children are silencing it, or that the witnesses themselves, who returned from overseas, denied that the rumor was true.

6)

(a)Rav Yosef answered Abaye's She'eilah on the basis of Rav Chisda, who required Kosher witnesses to create the rumor, a clear indication that the Chachamim were lenient (and by the same token, they would allow the rumor to be negated. How did Abaye counter that?

(b)What was the outcome of the She'eilah? What was Rav Yosef's last word on the subject?

(c)There was a case where a rumor had spread that a woman was betrothed to a certain Talmid, whom Rav Chama brought before his father. What Amasla did that Talmid present?

(d)Why did Rav Chama's father decline to accept it?

6)

(a)Rav Yosef replied to Abaye's She'eilah on the basis of Rav Chisda, who required Kosher witnesses to create the rumor, a clear indication that the Chachamim were lenient (and by the same token, they would allow the rumor to be negated. Abaye countered that, in that case, one could bring the opposite proof from Rav Sheshes, in whose opinion the rumor was acceptable even if it was initiated by women, in which case, it ought to follow that, since the Chachamim were strict, the rumor could not be negated.

(b)Rav Yosef's last word on the subject was that this was in fact, a conflict between two towns; because in Sura they tended to permit the negation of a rumor, but in Neharda'a, they did not.

(c)There was a case where a rumor had spread that a woman was betrothed to a certain Talmid, whom Rav Chama brought before his father. The Talmid claimed that the woman accepted the Kidushin only on condition that he did not go to the Bei Chuza'i, which he subsequently did, thereby negating the Kidushin.

(d)Rav Chama's father decline to accept it however based on what we learned earlier, that an Amasla which emerges only after the rumor has already been established does not break the rumor.

7)

(a)In another incident, a rumor spread that a certain woman had become betrothed by means of 'Atzipa d'Tuchla' by the well of Bei Shifi. What is 'Atzipa d'Tuchla'?

(b)On what grounds did ...

1. ... Abaye tell Rav Idi bar Avin that even the Neherdians, who did not normally negate rumors, would negate this one?

2. ... Rava say the same thing in a case where a rumor had spread that a woman had become betrothed to one of the sons of Ploni?

3. ... Rav Mordechai tell Rav Ashi the same thing with regard to a case where the rumor had spread that a woman had become betrothed to a Katan who resembled a Gadol?

(c)What did Rav Mordechai mean by quoting the Pasuk in Shoftim "li'Felagos Reuven Gedolim Chikekei Leiv"?

7)

(a)In another incident, a rumor spread that a certain woman had become betrothed by means of 'Atzipa d'Tuchla' (dates that have not fully ripened and that one places in a basket of palm-branches to improve slightly [though they never become fully ripe see also Mesores ha'Shas]) by the well of Bei Shifi.

(b)

1. Abaye told Rav Idi bar Avin that even the Neherdians, who did not normally negate rumors, would negate this one because (rather than assuming that a betrothed woman married another man) people would conclude that the Chachamim had determined that the dates were not worth a Perutah.

2. Rava said the same in a case where a rumor had spread that a woman had become betrothed to one of the sons of Ploni because here too, they would say that the Chachamim had determined that the son to whom she was betrothed was a Katan (and the Kidushin, invalid).

3. And Rav Mordechai told Rav Ashi the same thing with regard to a case where the rumor had spread that a woman had become betrothed to a Katan who resembled a Gadol because once again, they would attribute her marriage to somebody else to the fact that the Chachamim determined that the Kidushin of the first boy was invalid because, in spite of his size, he was a Katan (seeing as he behaved like one), whose Kidushin is Batel.

(c)When Rav Mordechai quoted the Pasuk "li'F'lagos Reuven Gedolim Chikekei Leiv" he meant to say that it is only a Gadol in age who has 'Chikekei Leiv' (Da'as), not in size.

89b----------------------------------------89b

8)

(a)We cited earlier the opinion of Rabah bar Rav Huna, who validates an Amasla up to ten days from the time of the rumor. What additional leniency does Rav Zevid hold with regard to Amasla?

(b)Rav Papa queried Rav Zevid from our Mishnah 'u'Bil'vad she'Lo Tehei Sham Amasla', implying that one requires the actual Amasla. What was Rav Zevid's reply?

8)

(a)We cited earlier the opinion of Rabah bar Rav Huna who validates an Amasla up to ten days from the time of the rumor. Rav Zevid holds that we do not even need the actual Amasla, but if there is reason to assume one, that is sufficient to negate the rumor.

(b)Rav Papa queried Rav Zevid from our Mishnah 'u'Bil'vad she'Lo Tehei Sham Amasla', implying that one requires an actual Amasla, to which Rav Zevid replied that what the Mishnah means is not 'Amasla', but 'Makom Amasla' (a potential Amasla).

9)

(a)If, on the basis of one witness, who testified that a woman's husband had died, Beis-Din permitted the woman to marry, and after she married, her husband returned, she is forbidden to him. Why is that? What are we afraid that people will say?

(b)If, on the other hand, she was only betrothed to the second man when her husband returned, she is permitted to return to him. What did Rav Kahana try to prove to Rav Papa from here?

(c)What did Rav Papa reply? Why do we not need to come on to the concept of Amasla at all?

(d)Then why do we not say the same even when she was already married?

9)

(a)If, on the basis of one witness, who testified that a woman's husband had died, Beis-Din permitted the woman to marry, and after she married, her husband returned, she is forbidden to him. This is because we are afraid that people will say that the second man married her after her husband divorced her, in which case, her first husband is performing a sin by taking her back after she had remarried.

(b)If, on the other hand, she was only betrothed to the second man when her husband returned, she is permitted to return to him because, Rav Kahana maintains, people will assume that the second man only betrothed her on the condition that her husband does not return, overriding the 'rumor' that she was betrothed (a clear proof for Rav Zevid, that even a potential Amasla negates a rumor) ...

(c)... to which Rav Papa replied that the reason the woman is permitted to return to her husband, has nothing to do with Amasla, but is due to the fact that her husband returned to her. What people will say is that he never really divorced her in the first place, only she thought that he had died, and the fact that he is alive, invalidates the second Kidushin (as was indeed the case).

(d)We do not say the same even when she was married because there, since she had performed a grave sin (by having relations with the second man albeit partially b'Ones), we penalize her (for not making more extensive inquiries) and prohibit her from returning to her husband (whereas when they were only betrothed, she had not performed a sin, and there is no reason to penalize her).

10)

(a)What does Rav Ashi say about a rumor ...

1. ... that has not been substantiated by Beis-Din?

2. ... that only began to spread after the woman is already married?

(b)What sort of rumor is Rav Ashi talking about in the latter case?

(c)Why does she not even require a Get from the other man?

(d)Rav Ashi does however, contend with a similar rumor after she is betrothed. What does this mean practically?

10)

(a)Rav Ashi discounts a rumor ...

1. ... that has not been substantiated by Beis-Din.

2. ... that only began to spread after the woman is already married.

(b)In the latter case, Rav Ashi is talking about a rumor that before her marriage, which took place today, she had been betrothed to someone else.

(c)She does not even require a Get from the other man because that would substantiate the rumor, with the result that she would now be considered to be living with a man who committed adultery with her, and she would be forced to leave him.

(d)Rav Ashi does however, does contend with a similar rumor after she is betrothed. Practically, this mean that she requires a Get from the other man and is permitted to remain with the man to whom she is now betrothed.

11)

(a)Rav Chaviva is even more lenient than Rav Ashi (in the latter Halachah). What does he say?

(b)Why does she not require a Get from the other man?

(c)Like whom is the Halachah?

11)

(a)Rav Chaviva is even more lenient than Rav Ashi. In his opinion we do not even contend with the rumor that began to spread after her betrothal either.

(b)Neither does she even require a Get from the first man as this would only raise the hackles of her betrothed.

(c)The Halachah is like Rav Chaviva.

12)

(a)What did Shmuel rule when, after Rav's death, the Talmidim of Rav asked him what the Din will be if a second man betroths a woman after a rumor has already spread that she is betrothed to someone else?

(b)When he added that they need to investigate further, why can he not have meant that, in the event that they discovered the first rumor to be false, they should negate it?

(c)Then what did he mean?

12)

(a)When, after Rav's death, the Talmidim of Rav asked Shmuel what the Din will be if a second man betrothed a woman after the rumor has already spread that she is betrothed to someone else he replied that she must leave her betrothed, and that one should investigate further.

(b)By this latter statement, he cannot have meant that, in the event that they discover the first rumor to be false, they should negate it because Shmuel was from Neharda'a, and the custom in Neharda'a was not to negate rumors (as we learned earlier).

(c)What he meant was that, should they be able to confirm that the first Kidushin did occur, then the second man will not require a Get.

13)

(a)Rav Huna disagrees with Shmuel. According to him, if a married woman stretches out her hand and accepts Kidushin from someone else, she is betrothed to him, because of Rav Hamnuna. What did Rav Hamnuna say?

(b)Does this mean that Shmuel disagrees with Rav Hamnuna?

(c)What does Rav Huna hold in the previous case of Shmuel, but where the Kidushin of the first man was not confirmed?

(d)Why does he not allow the second man to divorce her and the first one to marry her?

13)

(a)Rav Huna disagrees with Shmuel. According to him, if a married woman stretched out her hand and accepted Kidushin from someone else, she is betrothed to him, because of Rav Hamnuna who rules that if a woman says to her husband that he divorced her, she is believed, on the grounds that she would not be brazen enough to make such a claim unless it was true.

(b)This does not mean that Shmuel disagrees with Rav Hamnuna because, in Shmuel's opinion, Rav Hamnuna is speaking exclusively when the woman made the claim in her husband's presence, whereas in the case over which he and Rav Huna are arguing, the husband was not present when his wife accepted the second Kidushin.

(c)In the previous case of Shmuel, but where the Kidushin of the first man was not confirmed, Rav Huna holds that he must divorce her, and she is permitted to the second man.

(d)He does not allow the second man to divorce her and the first one to marry her because people will then suspect the first man of taking back his divorcee after she became betrothed to someone else.

14)

(a)Rav Shin'na Brei d'Rav Idi disagrees with Rav Huna. On what grounds does he permit what Rav Huna forbids?

(b)If a rumor spread first that the woman is betrothed to Reuven and a second rumor, that she is betrothed to Shimon, Rav Papa extends the ruling of Rav Huna in the previous case ('Megaresh Rishon, v'Nosei Sheni'). What does Ameimar mean when he says 'Muteres li'Sheneihem'?

(c)Will even Rav Huna agree with this ruling?

(d)What is the Halachah?

14)

(a)Rav Shin'na Brei d'Rav Idi permits what Rav Huna forbids on the grounds that, in his opinion, people will merely think that, after looking into the matter, the Chachamim discovered the first Kidushin to have been invalid (as was indeed the case).

(b)If a rumor spread first that the woman is betrothed to Reuven and a second rumor, that she is betrothed to Shimon, Rav Papa extends the ruling of Rav Huna in the previous case ('Megaresh Rishon, v'Nosei Sheni'). When Ameimar says 'Muteres li'Sheneihem', he means that either of them may marry her after the other one divorces her.

(c)Even Rav Huna will agree with this ruling seeing as the woman was not definitely betrothed to the second man. Consequently, people will merely say that the Chachamim went into the matter and decided that his Kidushin was invalid.

(d)The Halachah is like Ameimar.

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES
ON THIS DAF