[80a - 41 lines; 80b - 39 lines]


(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.

(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).

(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).

(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity (Devarim 14:22-27).

(e)If it is impractical to bring the actual food to Yerushalayim, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed with money. This money receives the status of Ma'aser Sheni, and is then brought to Yerushalayim. In Yerushalayim the money is used to buy food, which in turn receives the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim.

(f)The daughter of a Levi who is divorced or widowed without children returns to her father's house and may again eat Ma'aser Rishon. Our Mishnah teaches that if she who remarried with an invalid Get was such a woman, she is penalized such that she may not eat Ma'aser Rishon. Some maintain that she may indeed eat it; her penalty is that she may not receive it from those who wish to give it to her (TOSFOS to Yevamos 91a DH Amar).

2)[line 1]בת כהן מן התרומהBAS KOHEN MIN HA'TERUMAH - Who may Eat Terumah

(a)Terumah may be eaten by Kohanim, their wives, their unmarried daughters, and their Nochri slaves. It may be eaten only when they are Tehorim. If the wife of a Kohen is not herself the daughter of a Kohen, she may eat Terumah only as long as her husband or at least one of their sons is alive (Vayikra 22:11, Bamidbar 18:11; see Nidah 44a). If the daughter of a Kohen marries a Yisrael, she may not eat Terumah. If, however, she is widowed or divorced without children, then she returns to her father's house and may once again eat Terumah.

(b)Our Mishnah teaches that if she who remarried with an invalid Get had no children and returned to her father's house, then she may not eat Terumah. This is because she has the status of a Sotah - one who has committed adultery - who is prohibited to her husband, the adulterer, and from eating Terumah (Sotah 28a).

3)[line 2]יורשיןYORSHIN- his sons [who were born to him from the woman in question]

4)[line 3]כתובתהKESUVASAH- her Kesuvah; this refers to Kesuvas Benin Dichrin (see Background to 77:23:b:6)

5)[line 3]אם מתוIM MESU- if [either her original or second husband] die

6)[line 4]חולצין ולא מייבמיןCHOLTZIN V'LO MEYABMIN- they must perform Chalitzah but not Yibum (see Background to 78:51). The brothers of her original husband may do either mid'Oraisa, but they are penalized and are not allowed to perform Yibum mid'Rabanan. The brothers of her second "husband" need not even perform Chalitzah mid'Oraisa, but they must do so mid'Rabanan so that people do not think that she was truly married and that Chalitzah is not always necessary in such cases.

7)[line 4]שינהSHINAH- if he changed

8)[line 5]כל הדרכים האלו בהKOL HA'DERACHIM HA'ELU BAH- all of these measures [described above that apply in the case wherein she remarried based upon an invalid get] apply to her

9)[line 6]עריות שאמרו צרותיהן מותרותARAYOS SHE'AMRU TZAROSEIHEN MUTAROS- those women who are forbidden [to the Yavam to whom they fall] regarding whom [the Chachamim] said [that] their co-wives are permitted [to marry another without requiring either Yibum or Chalitzah]. The Mishnayos (Yevamos 1:1-3) list fifteen women who are forbidden to their Yevamim to the degree that not only they, but even their co-wives, are exempt from both Yibum and Chalitzah if he is the only Yavam (see Yevamos 3b, 8a). These women are: his daughter, his daughter's daughter, his son's daughter, his wife's daughter, his wife's son's daughter, his wife's daughter's daughter, his mother-in-law, his mother-in-law's mother, his father-in-law's mother, his half-sister from his mother's side, his mother's sister, his wife's sister, the widow of his half-brother on his mother's side, the widow of his brother who died before he was born, and his daughter-in-law.

10)[line 7]נישאוNIS'U- they [re]married [men other than the Yavam]

11)[line 8]אלוELU- the [Arayos who exempted them from Yibum]

12)[line 8]איילוניתAILONIS- a woman lacking a womb, and therefore incapable of conception (The word "Ailonis" is derived from the word "Ayil" - a male ram [Kesuvos 11a]). An Ailonis may be diagnosed as such only from the age of twenty (see Yevamos 80a-b). Since one is presumed to have married his wife on the assumption that she was able to bear children, if she turns out to be an Ailonis then he need not give her a Get. Therefore, in the case described in our Mishnah, it turns out that the Tzaros were never co-wives of an Ervah, and therefore were prohibited from marrying one other than a Yavam without Yibum or Chalitzah.

13)[line 8]תצא מזה ומזהTETZEI MI'ZAH UMI'ZEH- she must leave [both her current husband] and [the Yavam]. She may not stay married to her husband since she was prohibited from marrying him. Her Yavam may not perform Yibum with her since people may think that she had performed Chalitzah and then went back to him, which is forbidden (Yevamos 10b).

14)[line 9]הכונסHA'KONES- one who brings in[to his house as a wife through Yibum]

15)[line 9]הָלְכה צרתה ונישאת לאחרHALCHAH TZARASAH V'NIS'ES L'ACHER- her co-wife went and married another [since only one wife of the dead brother need perform either Yibum or Chalitzah]

16)[line 10]זוZO- the Yevamah who was married to her Yavam through Yibum

17a)[line 12]גט לאישGET L'ISH- a Get for a man [to subsequently present to his wife]

b)[line 12]שובר לאשהSHOVER L'ISHAH- a receipt [stating that she had received her Kesuvah (see Background to 79:41)] for his wife [to subsequently present to her husband]

18)[line 13]נתנו זה לזהNASNU ZEH L'ZEH- they gave each other [their respective documents, assuming that she was being divorced and that he was receiving a receipt]

19)[line 16]אם לאלתר יצאIM L'ALTAR YATZA- if [the mix-up] is discovered immediately

20)[line 17]לא כל הימנו מן הראשון לאבד זכותו של שניLO KOL HEIMENU MIN HA'RISHON L'ABED ZECHUSO SHEL SHENI- the first [husband] is not believed (lit. not everything is from him) to take away the right of the second [husband to remain married to his wife, since we suspect that he has made a deal with his ex-wife to allow her to escape her second marriage]

21)[line 20]הרומייםHA'ROMIYIM- the Roman Empire

22)[line 21]אין להם לא כתב ולא לשוןEIN LA'HEM LO KSAV V'LO LASHON- a) they do not have their own script [as the Roman alphabet was adapted from an early form of the Etruscan alphabet] nor language [as Latin was brought to Italy from those who migrated from the north] (RASHI); b) they do not have a distinct idiom written and spoken only by the royalty (TOSFOS to Avodah Zarah 10a DH she'Ein, quoting the RI; TOSFOS YESHANIM to Yevamos 91b)

23)[line 23]משום שלום מלכותMISHUM SHELOM MALCHUS- in order to maintain good relations with the monarchy [in which Jews find themselves]

24)[line 25]כל המשנה ממטבע שטבעו חכמים בגיטיןKOL HA'MESHANEH MI'MATBE'A SH'TAV'U CHACHAMIM B'GITIN- whomever deviates from the form decreed by the Chachamim with regard to [writing] Gitin

25)[line 29]מליכאMELICHA- it is a [current] monarchy [and will therefore lead to jealousy on the part of the monarchy wherein the Jews are living]

26)[line 31]מלכותא הווMALCHUSA HAVU- it was [once] a [viable] monarchy [and will therefore lead to jealousy on the part of the monarchy wherein the Jews are living]

27)[line 33]קמדכרי שבחייהוKA'MADKEREI SHIVCHAIHU- they are alluding to their pride [which will lead to jealousy on the part of the monarchy wherein the Jews are living]

28)[line 38]כי יתביתו בשיליKI YASVISU B'SHILI- when you are in Shili (a city near Pumbedisa)

29)[line 39]מימסרן לכו מילי בהיניMIMSERAN LECHU MILEI B'HINI- you were given instructions [from the husband even] in [the neighboring city of] Hini (see beginning of TOSFOS DH Ki)


30)[line 1]זו דברי ר"מZU DIVREI REBBI MEIR- these are the words of Rebbi Meir [who invalidates a Get due to the need to maintain good relations with the monarchy in which Jews find themselves]

31)[line 2]סנטרSANTAR- the town surveyor; a lowly governmental official (related to the word "senator" - YA'AVETZ)

32)[line 3]איסטנדרא דבשכרISTANDERA D'BASHKAR- the viceroy of Bashkar

33)[line 8]זילא להו מילתאZILA LEHU MILSA- it is a disgrace for [the monarchy for the Get to be dated from the appointment of the lowly surveyor]

34)[line 9]זו דברי ר"מZU DIVREI REBBI MEIR- these are the words of Rebbi Meir [who rules that Mamzerim are produced from a marriage based upon a Get that deviates from the form decreed by the Chachamim]

35)[line 15]ליערבינהו וליתנינהוLEI'ARVINHU V'LISNINHU- they should have been combined [with the cases of the incorrectly dated Gitin earlier in the Mishnah] and taught [together as one Halachah]

36)[line 17]זינוZINU- if they had extramarital relations (which presumably are different than marriage since they would not be cause to prohibit a Tzarah to her Yavam)

37)[line 19]שומרת יבםSHOMERES YAVAM- a Yevamah waiting [for either Yibum or Chalitzah]

38)[line 20]לישנא מעליא נקטLISHNA MA'ALYA NAKAT- [the Tana of our Mishnah] chose to use a euphemism

39)[line 24]מיחלפא באשה שהלך בעלה למדינת היםMICHLEFA B'ISHAH SHE'HALACH BA'ALAH LI'MEDINAS HA'YAM- since [this case of a Tzaras Ervah who wishes to perform Yibum after marrying another] is easily confused with [the case of] a woman whose husband went abroad [and was reported dead, who then married another]. In the latter case the Chachamim decreed that she must be divorced from both husbands and that all of the repercussions discussed in our Mishnah apply to her (see Yevamos 87b). If she merely had extramarital relations before returning to the Yavam, however, it is not as likely that people will confuse the case with a woman who remarried.

40)[line 26]צריכאTZERICHAH- it is necessary [for our Mishnah to teach both the case of the Tzaras Ervah whose co-wife turned out to be Ailonis as well as that of a Tzarah whose co-wife performed Yibum and then turned out to be Ailonis]

41)[line 27]איקיים מצות יבוםIKAYEM MITZVAS YIBUM- [she had been under the impression that] the Mitzvah of Yibum had been performed [and she is therefore less culpable of neglecting to wait until it was certain that her co-wife was not an Ailonis]

42)[line 29]קא רמיא קמיהKA RAMYA KAMEI- lit. she is thrown in front of him; i.e., she had the option of performing Yibum herself [and instead allowed to her younger co-wife to do so, in which case she is more culpable of neglecting to wait until it was certain that her co-wife was not an Ailonis]

43)[line 29]לא רמיא קמיהLO RAMYA KAMEI- [she had been under the impression that] she did not have the option of performing Yibum herself [since she was the co-wife of a Ervah]

44)[line 34]עסוקין באותו עניןASUKIN B'OSO INYAN- dealing with that matter [of her divorce]