12th CYCLE DEDICATION
GITIN 56 (6 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Rivka bas Yechezkel Pinker on the occasion of her first Yahrzeit, by her children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, all of whom live in Eretz Yisrael.

[a - 53 lines; b - 49 lines]

1)[line 3]NAKTEI- he grabbed [bar Kamtza]

2)[line 4]AMAR- [bar Kamtza] said [to himself]

3)[line 5]MACHU- protest

4)[line 6] EICHUL BEHU KURTZA BEI MALKA- I will slander them to the Caesar in his palace

5)[line 7]KEISAR- the Caesar

6)[line 7] !MARDU BACH YEHUDA'EI!- the Jews are rebelling against you!

7)[line 8] SHADAR LEHU KURBENA- send a sacrifice to them [to be offered on your behalf]

8)[line 8]CHAZIS- see

9)[line 9] IGLA TILTA- a) a calf that has reached one-third [of its full growth, at which point it is tastiest] (RASHI to Eruvin 63a); b) a calf that has reached one-third [of its expected lifespan, at which point it has reached its full growth and is tastiest] (RASHI to Sanhedrin 65b); c) a calf that is [its mother's] third [offspring, which is especially well-developed and tasty] (RASHI ibid., to Shabbos 11a, and to Pesachim 68b); d) a fattened and tasty calf (TOSFOS DH Igla) (See Insights to Shabbos 136a)

10)[line 9] BA'HADEI DEKA'ASI- along the way

11)[line 10] SHADA BEI MUMA- he blemished [the sacrifice]

12)[line 10] NIV SEFASAYIM- upper lip

13)[line 11] DOKIN SHEBA'AYIN- cataracts in the eye. Bar Kamtza knew how to cause a cataract to grow over the course of time that it took to travel to Yerushalayim; alternatively, he switched the animal with one that had a cataract (TESHUVOS HA'RASHBA; 1:326)

14)[line 11]DUCHTA- a place

15)[line 11]L'DIDAN- according to us (i.e., Halachically speaking)

16)[line 13]SAVUR L'MIKTELEI- [the Chachamim] considered killing [bar Kamtza]

17)[line 15]ANVESANUSO- his willingness to forego (see Insights)

18)[line 16] SHADAR ILAVAIHU L'NIRON KEISAR- [the Caesar] sent the emperor Nero to [attack] them

19)[line 16] SHADA GIRA- he shot an arrow

20)[line 18]YENUKA- a child

21)[line 18] PESOK LI PESUKEICH- relate to me the verse that you [have just studied]. This is a manner of divination.

22)[line 18]" ...""V'NASATI ES NIKMASI BE'EDOM B'YAD AMI YISRAEL..."- "And I shall exact my revenge against Edom through my nation Yisrael ..." (Yechezkel 25:14). Edom is another name for Esav, from whom the Romans descended.

23a)[line 19] BA'I LI'CHERUVEI BEISEI- wishes to destroy His house

b)[line 19] UVA'I LI'CHEFUREI YADEI B'HA'HU GAVRA- and He wishes to cleanse His hands [by taking revenge against] that man (referring to himself in the third person)

24)[line 20]ARAK- he ran away

25)[line 21] ASPASYANUS KEISAR- the Emperor Vespasian (who was not yet emperor)

26)[line 21] TZAR ALAH TELAS SHANEI- he besieged it for three years

27)[line 22]ATIREI- wealthy individuals

28)[line 23] SHE'NAKDAH LO CHAMAH BA'AVURO- in whose merit the sun pierced the clouds (see Ta'anis 20a)

29)[line 24] HAYESA TZITZASO NIGRERES AL GEVEI KESASOS- his Tzitzis dragged upon fine woolen sheets [that were set out before him to walk upon]

30)[line 25] HAYESA KESASO MUTELES BEIN GEDOLEI ROMI- [his name was ben Tzitzis, and] his chair was placed among the leaders of Rome

31)[line 26]ZAINA- sustain

32a)[line 26]CHAMRA- wine

b)[line 26]MILCHA- salt

c)[line 26]MISHCHA- oil

33)[line 27]TZIVEI- kindling wood

34)[line 27]AKLIDEI- keys

35)[line 28] A'KALBA D'CHITEI BA'I SHITIN A'KALBEI D'TZIVEI- one storehouse of wheat requires sixty storehouses of wood [to cook it]

36)[line 29]SHASA- years

37)[line 29]BIRYONEI- warmongering boors

38)[line 30] NEIPOK V'NA'AVID SHALMA BA'HADAIHU- let us go out [of the city] and make peace with them

39)[line 30] LO SHAVKINHU- [the Biryonim] did not let them [leave the city]

40)[line 31]KERAVA- war

41)[line 31] LO MISTAYEI'A MILSA- [a war] will be unsuccessful

42)[line 31] KALANHU L'HANAHU AMBEREI- they burned down those storehouses

43)[line 32]KAFNA- famine

44)[line 33]SEMIDA- fine flour

45)[line 33], AD'AZAL, IZDABEN- by the time that he went, it had been sold [out]

46)[line 34]CHIVARTA- white bread [baked with well-sifted flour]

47)[line 35]GUSHKERA- coarse bread [baked with whole flour]

48)[line 36] KIMCHA D'SA'AREI- barley flour

49)[line 37] HAVAH SHELIFA MESANA- she was not wearing shoes

50)[line 37] EISIV LAH PARASA B'CHAR'A- [animal] excrement stuck to her foot

51)[line 38]" , [ ...]""HA'RAKAH V'CHA VEHA'ANUGAH, ASHER LO NISESAH CHAF RAGLAH [HATZEG AL HA'ARETZ ME'HIS'ANEG UME'ROCH...]"- "The soft and pampered woman among you who has never needed to set foot [upon the ground due to her soft and pampered lifestyle...]" (Devarim 28:56). This verse is found in the Tochachah (rebuke). Raban Yochanan ben Zakai attributed it to Marsa bas Baisus, who died as a result of her inability to tolerate her disgust at finding excrement on her foot.

52)[line 39]GEROGEROS- dried figs

53)[line 39]ISNISA- she became disgusted [by the smell of Rebbi Tzadok's illness emanating from the fig skins]

54)[line 40]B'TA'ANISA- in fasting (presumably as much as humanly possible)

55)[line 41] HAVAH MISCHAZI ME'AVRAI- it would be seen [going down his gullet] from outside [of his body]

56)[line 41] KI HAVAH BARI- when he wished to be healed [after the forty years were up]

57)[line 41] MAYITZ MAIHU V'SHADI LEHU- he would suck out their juice [since he was unable to digest solids] and throw the [skins] away

58a)[line 42] APIKTAH L'CHOL DAHAVA V'CHASPA- she brought out all of her gold and silver

b)[line 42] SHADISEI B'SHUKA- she threw it into the marketplace

59)[line 43] ?HAI L'MAI MIBA'I LI?- what do I need this for?

60)[line 43]" , [ ; '...]""KASPAM BA'CHUTZOS YASHLICHU..."- "They will throw their silver into the streets, [and their gold will be rejected; their silver and gold will be unable to save them on the day of HaSh-m's wrath...]" (Yechezkel 7:19). The plain meaning of his verse is that the enemies of Klal Yisrael will refuse bribes when HaSh-m wishes them to destroy.

61)[line 44]ACHTEI- his sister

62)[line 44] HAVAH SHALACH LEI- [Raban Yochanan ben Zakai] sent to [Aba Sikra]

63)[line 44] TA B'TZIN'A L'GABAI- come to me secretly

64)[line 46] CHAZI LI TAKANTA L'DIDI D'EIPOK- see to a plan that will allow me to exit [the city]

65)[line 47]PURTA- a bit

66)[line 47] NEKOT NAFSHACH BI'KETZIREI- make as if you are sick

67)[line 48] LEISHAILU B'CHA- they will ask after you[r well-being, spreading the word that you are deathly ill]

68)[line 48] MIDI SARYA- something spoiled (such as an animal carcass)

69)[line 48] AGNI GABACH- place it [in your bed] with you

70)[line 48] LEI'AILU B'CHA TALMIDCHA- your students [who know that you are really alive] should go up [carrying your bed] with you

71)[line 49] LO LIRGESHAN BACH D'KALIL AT- they do not notice that you are [too] lightweight

72)[line 50] KI MATU L'FISCHA- when they reached the entrance [of the city]

73)[line 51] BA'U L'MIDKEREI- [the Biryonim] wanted to stab [Raban Yochanan ben Zakai to insure that he was indeed dead]

74)[line 51] AMAR LEHU- [Aba Sikra] said to [the other Biryonim]

75)[line 51]YOMERU- [the Romans] will say

76)[line 51]L'MIDCHEFEI- to jostle him [so that he will cry out if he is alive]

77)[line 52]BAVA- the gate

56b----------------------------------------56b

78)[line 1] IVRA MALKA AT- you will truthfully be a king

79)[line 2]MIMSERA- handed over

80)[line 3]" , [ ...]""V'HAYAH ADIRO MIMENU, [U'MOSHLO MI'KIRBO YETZEI...]"- "And his strength will be of him, [and his ruler will come forth from his midst...]" (Yirmeyah 30:21). This verse refers to the ruler of Klal Yisrael at the time of the redemption.

81)[line 5]"[ ,] ""... HA'HAR HA'TOV HA'ZEH VEHA'LEVANON."- "[Please let me pass and I will see the good land that is across the Jordan River,] this good mountain and the Levanon" (Devarim 3:25). In this verse, Moshe Rabeinu requests of HaSh-m that he allow him to enter Eretz Yisrael so that he can gaze upon Yerushalayim ("this good mountain") and the Beis ha'Mikdash ("Levanon"). The Beis ha'Mikdash is called Levanon since it allows for the atonement, or "whitening" (from "Lavan"), of the sins of Klal Yisrael.

82)[line 8] DERAKON KARUCH ALEHA- a serpent is coiled around it

83)[line 8] ?LO HAYU SHOVRIN ES HA'CHAVIS BISHVIL DARKON?- would they not break the barrel so the serpent [would go away]? [So, too, you should have broken the wall of the city to drive away the Biryonim!]

84)[line 11]"... ""[MEFER OSOS BADIM V'KOSMIM YEHALEL;] MESHIV CHACHAMIM ACHOR V'DA'ATAM YESAKEL"- "[I am HaSh-m, Who annuls the omens of the astrologers, and makes the sorcerers into fools; Who] turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish" (Yeshayah 44:25). See Insights.

85)[line 12] SHAKLINAN TZAVTA- we [would] take tongs

86)[line 14]PERISTEKA- a messenger

87)[line 15] HAVAH SAYIM CHAD MESANEI- [Vespasian] was wearing one shoe

88)[line 16]L'MISHLEFA- to remove

89)[line 17]"... ""... SHEMU'AH TOVAH TEDASHEN ATZEM"- "... good tidings fatten the bone" (Mishlei 15:30).

90)[line 18] D'LO MEISVA DAITACH MINEI- from whom your awareness is not settled; i.e., whom you do not like

91)[line 18] LICHLIF KAMACH- pass him in front of yourself

92)[line 18]"... ""... V'RU'ACH NECHE'AH TEYABESH GAREM"- "... and a downtrodden spirit will dry the bone" (Mishlei 17:22).

93)[line 21] MEIZAL AZILNA- I am going

94)[line 21]MESHADRANA- I will send [to take over the siege]

95)[line 22]YAVNEH- Yavneh, a city along the coast of Eretz Yisrael (near present-day Rechovot), was the first stop made by the Sanhedrin (Supreme Court) when it went into exile just prior to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

96)[line 22] SHUSHILTA D'RABAN GAMLIEL- [protection for] the [familial] chain of Raban Gamliel [whose family was that of the Nesi'im (spiritual leaders of the generation) who were descended from King David, and from whom Mashi'ach will descend]

97)[line 22]ASVASA- doctors

98)[line 24] L'SHAVKINHU HADA ZIMNA- to leave them this time [thereby lifting the siege and allowing the Beis ha'Mikdash to remain]

99)[line 26]ASHKEYUHA- they gave him to drink

100a)[line 26] MAYA D'FAREI- water in which bran had been soaked

b)[line 26] MAYA D'SIPUKA- water in which coarse bran and flour had been mixed

c)[line 26] MAYA D'KIMCHA- water mixed with flour

101)[line 27] RAVACH MEI'EI PURTA PURTA- his intestines widened little by little

102)[line 27]AZAL- [Vespasian] went

103)[line 27]" , ""V'AMAR EI ELOHEIMO, TZUR CHASAYU VO."- "And he will say, 'Where is your G-d, the Rock under which you sought shelter'?" (Devarim 32:37). Although this verse attributes these words to HaSh-m, asking Klal Yisrael where their protective idols are, our Gemara places them in the mouth of Titus in a reference to HaSh-m Himself.

104)[line 28] CHIREF V'GIDEF- blasphemed

105)[line 29]HITZI'A- spread out

106)[line 29]SAYEF- a sword

107)[line 29]GIDER- sliced

108)[line 32]PAROCHES- the curtain dividing the Heichal (Sanctuary) from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (the inner sanctum housing the Aron - Holy Ark) (Shemos 26:31-34)

109)[line 30]MEVATZVETZ- bubble forth

110)[line 30] HARAG ES ATZMO- lit. that he killed himself. This euphemism means that he thought that he killed G-d.

111)[line 30]" ; ""SHA'AGU TZORERECHA B'KEREV MO'ADECHA; SAMU OSOSAM OSOS"- "Your enemies roared in the midst of your appointed place; they made their omens into omens" (Tehilim 74:4). Our Gemara interprets this verse to mean that Titus, who destroyed the Beis ha'Mikdash, divined that he had killed G-d based upon the blood that bubbled forth from the Paroches.

112)[line 31]CHASIN- one who holds himself back

113)[line 31]NI'UTZO- his insults

114)[line 32]ELIM- mighty ones

115)[line 32]ILMIM- silent ones

116)[line 33]GARGUSNI- (O.F. coledoir) a large basket suspended underneath a winepress that strains the juice from the skins and seeds; a colander

117)[line 33]" , ; , ; [ ]""UV'CHEN RA'ISI RESHA'IM KEVURIM, VA'VA'U, UMI'MEKOM KADOSH YEHALECHU, V'YISHTAKCHU VA'IR ASHER KEN ASU; [GAM ZEH HAVEL]"- "And thus I saw evil people buried, and they came; and from the holy place they went, and it was forgotten in the city what they had done; [this, too, is futility]" (Koheles 8:10). The plain meaning of this verse is that sometimes wicked people who were forgotten completely make a comeback, whereas the righteous and their deeds are forgotten immediately.

118)[line 34] ELA KEVUTZIM- but rather gathered. According to this interpretation of the verse, it reads, "And thus I saw evil people who gathered and came..."

119)[line 35] AFILU MILEI D'METAMRAN IGLAYA L'HON- even those things (such as money and other valuables) that were hidden were revealed to them. According to this interpretation of the verse, it reads, "And thus I saw evil people who found hidden things and came..."

120)[line 36] NACHSHOL SHEBA'YAM L'TOV'O- a gale on the high sea to drown him

121)[line 36] KI'MEDUMAH ANI- it seems to me

122)[line 37]SISERA (MILCHEMES SISERA)

(a)Following the death of the Shofet (Judge) Ehud Ben Geira, Bnei Yisrael became lax in their observance of Torah and Mitzvos. In response, and so as to prompt them to do Teshuvah, HaSh-m allowed King Yavin of Chatzor to attack and subjugate them. After twenty years of subjugation under the cruel general Sisera, Bnei Yisrael finally repented and cried out to HaSh-m to save them.

(b)As they were now worthy of redemption, HaSh-m informed Devorah the prophetess that were Bnei Yisrael to wage war against Sisera, they would be victorious. She and her husband, Barak ben Avino'am, led Bnei Yisrael to the battlefield. HaSh-m caused a flash flood in Nachal Kishon that wiped out much of Sisera's army, including all 900 of his iron chariots. Sisera himself escaped the battlefield, only to be killed by Ya'el, wife of Chever ha'Keini.

123)[line 38] BAS KOL - A Heavenly Voice

(a)One form of revelation below that of true prophecy is called a Bas Kol (lit. echo). This refers to a heavenly voice that can be heard only by individuals on a high spiritual level. In numerous places throughout the Talmud, we find instances in which those on earth gained information from Heaven relayed through a Bas Kol.

124)[line 38] BERYAH KALAH- a simple creature

125)[line 39]YATUSH- a mosquito or gnat

126a)[line 39]MA'ALNA- a mouth [which with to take in sustenance]

b)[line 39]MAFKANA- an outlet [through which to excrete]

127)[line 40]CHOTMO- his nostril

128)[line 40] NIKER B'MOCHO- it pecked at his brain

129)[line 41] BEI NAFCHA- a smithy

130)[line 41] SHAMA KOL ARZAFTA- it heard the sound of a hammer [banging]

131)[line 41]ISHTIK- it was quiet; i.e., it did not peck

132)[line 41]MACHU- he banged [with his hammer]

133)[line 42] MISTAYEICH D'KA CHAZIS B'SAN'ACH- it is enough for you to see your enemy [suffering]

134)[line 43] KEIVAN D'DASH DASH- once it was used to it, it was used to it [and it was no longer distracted by the sound of the hammer]

135)[line 43]PATZ'U- they split open

136)[line 44] TZIPOR DEROR- (O.F. arondele) a swallow

137)[line 44]SELA'IM- coins worth a Sela (equal to four Zuz)

138)[line 44]GOZAL- a young pigeon

139)[line 44]LITRIN- Roman Libras, which are the equivalent of a pound each

140)[line 45]NAKTINAN- we have a tradition

141a)[line 45] PIV SHEL NECHOSES- its beak was of copper

b)[line 45] TZIPORNAV SHEL BARZEL- its nails were of iron

142a)[line 45] LIKALYUHA L'HA'HU GAVRA- cremate that man (referring to himself in the third person)

b)[line 46] V'LIVDEREI L'KITMEI A'SHEV YAMEI- and scatter his ashes over the seven seas

143)[line 46] LUKMEI B'DINA- and stand him in judgment

144)[line 46] ONKELUS BAR KELONIKUS...- Onkelus the son of Kelonikus. The Gemara elsewhere (Avodah Zarah 11a) records his father's name as "Kelonimus", and the VILNA GA'ON maintains that the correct Girsa is "Onkelus the son of Onkelus was the son of the sister of Andaryanus (a Roman Caesar) ...

145)[line 47] ASKEI L'TITUS B'NEGIDA- called Titus up from the dead through [the] witchcraft [of Ov]

146)[line 47] HA'HU ALMA- the next world

147)[line 48] ?MA'HU L'IDVUKEI B'HU?- should I join them [as a convert]?

148)[line 48] MILAIHU NEFISHIN V'LO MATZIS L'KIYUMINHU- their laws are many and you will be unable to keep them

149)[line 48] IGRI B'HU B'HA'HU ALMA- provoke them in that world

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