[78a - 38 lines; 78b - 38 lines]

1)[line 1]זיזZIZ- a protrusion; ledge

2)[line 2]סולם כל שהוא מיעטוSULAM KOL SHEHU MI'ATO- The ladder connects the protrusion to the ground (assuming that its rungs are within three Tefachim of each other). Since the protrusion is at least four by four Tefachim and the distance from the protrusion to the top of the wall is less than ten Tefachim, even if the ladder is less than four Tefachim wide there is a Pesach at this point of the wall.

3a)[line 3]דאותביה עליהD'OSVEI ALEI- he leaned the ladder on the protrusion

b)[line 3]אותביה בהדיOSVEI BAHADEI- he leaned the ladder on the wall next to the protrusion

4)[line 3]ארווחי ארוחיהARVUCHEI ARVECHEI- he widened the protrusion (but did not connect it to the ground)

5)[line 7]זה שלא כנגד זהZEH SHE'LO KENEGED ZEH- with one protrusion not directly underneath the other. One must be off to the side so that it is possible to place a ladder from one to the next.

6)[line 8]עמוד ברשות הרביםAMUD BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM- Rashi explains that after driving a peg into the surface of the pillar, the surface area is less than four by four Tefachim and is therefore no longer a Reshus ha'Yachid. According to this understanding, it is not clear why the Gemara mentions this here. The Rambam, however, explains that the Gemara is talking about shortening an Amud by inserting a peg along its height, in which case it is indeed relevant to the previous discussions (although his explanation is somewhat Dachuk) (SEFAS EMES).

7)[line 10]ובגבוה שלשהGAVO'AH SHELOSHA- the peg must be three Tefachim tall in order to minimize the area of the pillar; otherwise, it is Batul to the pillar

8)[line 14]אפשר דתלי' ביה מידיEFSHAR D'TALI BEI MIDI- he can hang something any on it

9)[line 15]מלאו כולו ביתדות מהוMAL'O KULO B'YESEDOS MAHU- if there are many pegs driven into the pillar [that are so close together that it is no longer possible to hang something on them], what is the Halachah [according to Rav Ashi?]

10)[line 17]בור וחולייתה מצטרף לעשרהBOR V'CHULYASAH MITZTARFIN L'ASARAH- [the depth of] a pit and [the height of its embankment which is comprised of] dirt taken from the pit combine to create the ten Tefachim of height [necessary to form a Reshus ha'Yachid]. The same is true, says Rebbi Yochanan, of the necessary four-Tefach width of a Reshus ha'Yachid - it is measured from the near side of the embankment, across the space of the pit, until the far side of the far embankment.

11)[line 19]דמנח מידיD'MANACH MIDI- he places an object such as a board or a stone [over the pit]

12a)[line 20]סולם ארבעה עשרSULAM ARBA'AH ASAR- The foot of the ladder must be four Tefachim away from the base of the wall, in order that the slant of the ladder is such that it is easy to climb.

b)[line 21]שלשה עשר ומשהוSHELOSHA ASAR U'MASHEHU- Rav Yosef maintains that the top of the ladder may reach until within one Tefach of the top of the wall.

c)[line 22]אחד עשר ומשהוACHAD ASAR U'MASHEHU- Abaye is of the opinion that as long as the top of the ladder is within three Tefachim of the top of the wall, Lavud (see Background to 76:7) applies.

d)[line 24]שבעה ומשהוSHIV'AH U'MASHEHU- Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua agrees with Rav, who rules that the ladder may stand up straight, and also with Abaye who applies Lavud.

13)[line 25]סולם זקוףSULAM ZAKUF- a ladder which is placed vertically (with no slant at all)

14)[line 26]ממעט גמראMEMA'ET GEMARA- we have a tradition that it is Mema'et

15)[line 29]דקלים שבבבל אינן צריכין קבעDEKALIM SHEB'BAVEL EINAN TZRICHIN KEVA- palm logs [placed under walls] in Bavel need not be fixed in place [even though it is permitted to move them on Shabbos since they are used as stools]

16)[line 35]וסולם מכאן וקשין באמצע מהוSULAM MIKAN V'SULAM MIKAN V'KASHIN B'EMTZA MAHU- if one placed two ladders, neither of which are even two Tefachim wide, against a wall such that their joint span is at least four Tefachim, and then connected them by placing straw between them, is this considered a Pesach?

17)[last line]הרי כף הרגל עולה בהןHAREI KAF HA'REGEL OLEH BAHEN- One is able to place his weight on the rungs of the ladder in the middle. Since the straw sticking out on the sides of the ladder is useful to hold onto when climbing, it counts toward determining the width of the ladder.

78b----------------------------------------78b

18)[line 1]חקק להשלים בכותל בכמהCHAKAK L'HASHLIM B'KOSEL B'KAMAH- This question concerns a ladder which is narrower than four Tefachim and reaches the top of the wall. In order to widen its width, handholds are carved out of the wall alongside the rungs. Along how much of the height of the wall must these handholds be carved?

19)[line 1]בעשרהB'ASARAH- only ten Tefachim of the height of the wall (RASHI); up until within ten Tefachim of the top of the wall (RABENU TAM according to the understanding of the MAHARSHAL and RASHASH)

20)[line 3]מסתלק ליהMISTALEK LEI- it is easy to climb (due to the actual ladder in the middle of the carved niches)

21a)[line 7]כל דבר שהוא משום שבות לא גזרו עליוKOL DAVAR SHE'HU MISHUM SHEVUS, LO GAZRU ALAV

(a)If one placed his Eruv Techumin in a tree before Shabbos, the Chachamim say that it does not extend his Techum. This is because it is Asur mid'Rabanan to use a tree on Shabbos for fear one might come to break a branch off. The Rabanan do not allow that which is Asur on Shabbos during Bein ha'Shemashos, as it is unclear whether it is daytime or nighttime, and Shabbos may have started. During Bein ha'Shemashos, therefore, when the Eruv was to determine his Makom Shevisah, he could not access his Eruv. According to Rebbi, such an Eruv does extend one's Techum, for Rebbi is of the opinion that the prohibitions of "Shevus," the Isurei d'Rabanan of Shabbos, do not apply during Bein ha'Shemashos. The Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi (SHULCHAN ARUCH OC 307:22, 342:1).

(b)The RITVA cites the RA'AVAD who states that when Rebbi said that the prohibitions of "Shevus" do not apply during Bein ha'Shemashos, he was referring only to the laws of Eruvei Techumin. Rebbi is saying that when the Rabanan enacted the laws of Eruvei Techumin, they said that the Eruv is valid as long as there is no Isur d'Oraisa preventing one from getting to his Eruv. If there is an Isur d'Rabanan preventing access to the Eruv, the Eruv is nevertheless valid. However, they did not actually permit doing an Isur d'Rabanan during Bein ha'Shemashos, even in order to get to the Eruv.

(c)The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 24:10) writes that it is permitted to transgress an Isur "Shevus" during Bein ha'Shemashos for the sake of a Mitzvah. Since an Eruv Techumin is made for a Dvar Mitzvah (such as going to learn Torah from a teacher who is farther than 2000 Amos away), it is permitted to transgress an Isur "Shevus" for that purpose. (MAGID MISHNEH ibid.)

b)[line 9]ואריא הוא דרביע עליהV'ARYA HU D'REVI'A ALEI- lit. and it is a lion that is crouched upon it. That is, the prohibition of climbing a tree on Shabbos does not cause us to cease viewing the tree as a doorway; rather, although the two courtyards are connected we cannot access the doorway between them on Shabbos.

22)[line 10]אשירהASHEIRAH- a tree that had been worshipped as an Avodah Zarah. (Asheirah was a popular fertility goddess in the Near East. She is identified with Astarte (Ashtaros) and Aphrodite.)

23)[line 11]תיבעי לרבי יהודה תיבעי לרבנןTIBA'I L'REBBI YEHUDAH, TIBA'I L'RABANAN

(a)The Torah classifies many objects as Isurei Hana'ah (items from which it is prohibited to benefit), such as Orlah (see Background to Berachos 36:15), Kil'ei ha'Kerem (see Background to Eruvin 3:18), Eglah Arufah (see Background to Eruvin 35:17), Tziporei Metzora (see Background to Nidah 70:1), the hair of a Nazir (see Background to Eruvin 4:15), Shor ha'Niskal (see Background to Nidah 8:4), Avodah Zarah (see Background to Shabbos 82:35), Ir ha'Nidachas (see Background to Kerisus 24:7), Peter Chamor (see Introduction to Bechoros 1:III), Basar b'Chalav (see Background to Chulin 103:6), Chulin she'Nishchetu ba'Azarah, (see Background to Temurah 33:5) a dead body, (see Gemara Avodah Zarah 29b) and its grave or shrouds (Gemara Sanhedrin 47b).

(b)Rebbi Yehudah and the Rabanan argue as to whether one may put an Eruv Techumin on a gravestone, which is Asur b'Hana'ah (Daf 31a). Rebbi Yehudah permits placing an Eruv there, asserting that one is not deriving benefit from the grave in this manner since he does not care whether or not his Eruv is protected from predators by remaining there all Shabbos. It has to be there only Bein ha'Shemashos. Since one may extend his Techum only for a Dvar Mitzvah, the fact that the Eruv was placed on the grave is not considered Hana'ah, for the performance of a Mitzvah is not classified as deriving pleasure. The Rabanan prohibit placing an Eruv on a gravestone because they are of the opinion that one normally wants his Eruv to be protected and to remain intact throughout Shabbos. By placing it on a gravestone, one is using the gravestone to protect it, which is a prohibited manner of deriving Hana'ah.

24)[line 26]אפילו מלא קש או תבןAFILU MALEI TEVEN O KASH- the ditch is not considered to be filled in when it is full of straw since the straw is being stored there only temporarily

25)[line 29]ב' גזוזטראות זו כנגד זוSHENEI GEZUZTERA'OS ZU KENEGED ZU- (O.F. aledoir) two balconies connected by a four-Tefach wide board (functioning as a Pesach) placed from one to the other

26)[line 30]פחות מכאןPACHOS MI'KAN- [a board] less than this (less than four Tefachim wide)

27)[line 32]מתבןMASBEN- a heap of straw; haystack

28)[line 36]אי בטליIY BATLEI- if he clearly states that he has no intention of removing it

29)[line 37]בסתמא?B'STAMA?- when he has not specifically stated that his intention is to leave it there?

30)[line 37]בית שמילאהו תבןBAYIS SHE'MIL'AHU TEVEN (TUM'AH RETZUTZAH)

(a)A covered space that is a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high is considered to be an "Ohel." If a k'Zayis from a corpse is anywhere in an Ohel, Tum'ah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel but does not rise above the Ohel.

(b)A space that is less than a Tefach high and a Tefach wide and deep is not considered an Ohel even if it is covered. Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (smashed or squashed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). Such Tum'ah does not spread throughout the enclosure, but "breaks through" (Boka'as) the enclosure and goes straight up and straight down, as if it were in the open air.

(c)The Mishnah (Ohalos 15:7) brought by our Gemara deals with a house filled with straw or pebbles where the owner declares that he has no intention of removing them (Bitlo). If a k'Zayis from a corpse is buried in the straw, it is Tum'ah Retzutzah and the house does not become an Ohel ha'Tum'ah. Therefore a vessel buried in the straw or pebbles to the side of the k'Zayis will remain Tahor, while a person or vessel above the k'Zayis - even if it is above the house altogether - will become Tamei.