ERUVIN 18 (7 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Esther Miryam bas Harav Chaim Zev and her husband Harav Refael Yisrael ben Harav Moshe (Snow), whose Yahrzeits are 7 Elul and 8 Elul respectively. Sponsored by their son and daughter in law, Moshe and Rivka Snow.

[18a - 55 lines; 18b - 52 lines]

1)[line 3]קרפףKARPAF- an enclosed area located outside of a settlement, used for the storage of timber and other such objects. The enclosure was not made for the purpose of dwelling.

2)[line 4]דירDIR- a corral erected in the fields and moved from place to place in order to fertilize the fields

3)[line 4]סהרSAHAR- stable; an open yard located near a city

4)[line 4]מוקצהMUKTZAH- an enclosed area located behind a house, used for the storage of things that are not in constant need

5)[line 4]חצרCHATZER- a courtyard in front of a house

6a)[line 10]בורBOR- a well

b)[line 10]בארBE'ER- a spring

7)[line 20]פסיקא ליהPESIKA LEI- it can be stated in an unqualified manner

8)[line 28]דיו עמודיןDEYO AMUDIN- two planks

9)[line 29]ד''יו למ''נודה שב''ח זונ''ית נתק''לקל במי''דה שלש''ה סימןDEYO L'MENUDAH SHEVACH ZONIS NISKALKEL B'MIDAH SHELOSHAH SIMAN- This Siman (sign) refers to all of the statements in the following Sugyos of Rebbi Yirmeyah ben Elazar. (Dikdukei Sofrim #50 brings the Girsa of the Oxford Manuscript, DEYO L'MENUDAH SHEVACH YONIN BAYIS CHARUV NISKALKEL B'MIDAS SHELOSHAH SIMAN, which more accurately describes the Sugyos):

1."Deyo Partzuf" (line 33);

2."Adam ha'Rishon b'Niduy" (18b, line 32);

3."Miktzas Shivcho Shel Adam" (18b, line 41);

4."Amrah Yonah" (18b, line 43);

5."Kol Bayis she'Nishma'in Bo Divrei Torah" (18b, line 46);

6."mi'Yom she'Charav Beis ha'Mikdash" (18b, line 48);

7."Niskalelah Bavel" (18b, line 50);

8."she'Lo k'Midas ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu" (19a, line 1);

9."Sheloshah Pesachim" (19a, line 36);

10a)[line 31]השיתיןHA'SHISIN- a type of wild, inferior fig

b)[line 31]הדיופראHA'DEYOFRA- a species of inferior fig tree that bears fruit twice a year

11)[line 34]"אחור וקדם צרתני...""ACHOR VA'KEDEM TZARTANI..."- "You have beset (lit. laid siege to) me, and laid Your hand upon me" (Tehilim 139:5) - Rebbi Yirmeyah ben Elazar reads into the word "Tzartani" a form of the root for Yetzirah, formation.

12a)[line 36]פרצוףPARTZUF- the whole body, even a face (ARUCH)

b)[line 36]זנבZANAV- appendage (ARUCH)

13)[line 41]מעלי שבתאMA'ALEI SHABATA- Erev Shabbos, Friday

14)[line 46]היינו דכתיב "וייצר" תרין יודיןHAINU D'CHESIV "VA'YITZER" TREIN YUDIN- that is why "va'Yitzer" (Bereishis 2:7) is written with two letters Yud, which implies two formations

15)[line 47]אוי לי מיצרי, אוי לי מיוצריOY LI MI'YITZRI, OY LI MI'YOTZRI- Woe unto me from my Evil Inclination (if I listen to my Creator); woe unto me from my Creator (if I follow my Evil Inclination)!

16)[line 51]"ויסגור בשר תחתנה""VA'YISGOR BASAR TACHTENAH"- "and closed up the flesh in its place" (Bereishis 2:21).

17)[line 54]קילעהKIL'AH- braided her hair

18)[line 54]כרכי היםKERACHEI HA'YAM- fortified port cities

19)[last line]קורין לקלעיתא בנייתאKORIN L'KALAYASA BINYASA- they call braids "Binyasa"


20)[line 5]שושבינותSHUSHBINUS- groomsmanship (taking care of all the wedding needs)

21)[line 11]יסלקנה לצדדיןYESALKENAH L'TZEDADIN- he should walk around her such that he is on the other side of the bridge until he passes her

22)[line 17]"יד ליד לא ינקה רע""YAD L'YAD LO YINAKEH RA"- "Hand to hand, he will not be cleansed from evil (Gehinom)" (Mishlei 11:21).

23)[line 21]"ויקם וילך מנוח אחרי אשתו; [ויבא אל האיש, ויאמר לו האתה האיש אשר דברת אל האשה, ויאמר אני]""VA'YAKAM VA'YELECH MANO'ACH ACHAREI ISHTO; [VA'YAVO EL HA'ISH, VA'YOMER LO, 'HA'ATAH HA'ISH ASHER DIBARTA EL HA'ISHAH?' VA'YOMER, 'ANI']" - "Mano'ach arose and he followed his wife. [He came to the man and said to him, 'Are you the man who spoke to the woman?' And he replied, 'I am.']" (Shoftim 13:11) (MANO'ACH AND THE ANGEL)

(a)Following Yisrael's spiritual decline, HaSh-m delivered them into the hands of the Pelishtim for a period of forty years. Mano'ach and his wife, a righteous couple from the tribe of Dan, had been unable to have children. HaSh-m sent an angel to Mano'ach's wife with the information that she would give birth to a son who was destined to save Yisrael single-handedly from the harsh oppression of the Pelishtim. The angel added that she was to refrain from drinking wine and from eating any product of the vine, because the child was to be a Nazir from birth.

(b)The woman told her husband about the G-dly-looking man (who resembled an angel and whom she assumed was a prophet), about whom she knew nothing, and what he had told her. In response, Mano'ach prayed to HaSh-m to send the man once more and to repeat his instructions, which He did, but this second time, the angel again appeared only to his wife as she sat in the field, and not to him. She hurried to tell her husband, who followed her out to the field to meet "the man," who repeated to him all that he had told his wife, with orders to adhere to every detail.

(c)When Mano'ach offered to serve their guest a kid-goat, he informed them that he would not eat their food, and that they should offer it instead as a burnt-offering to HaSh-m. They complied, and when they asked him his name, he told them that his name was "Peli" (hidden, a hint to his identity as an angel, as an angel is known by the mission that he is currently fulfilling and has no fixed name).

(d)It was when they brought the Korban to HaSh-m, when the angel produced fire from the rock before their eyes and then ascended to heaven with the pillar of flame that engulfed the animal and disappeared, that they realized that he was an angel. Mano'ach, who evidently was inferior to his wife in a number of ways, expressed his fear that having seen an angel of HaSh-m, they were destined to die. His wife reassured him that if HaSh-m had wanted them to die, He would have neither accepted their Korban nor shown them the series of miracles that they had just witnessed.

(e)Subsequently, a son was born to them, and they called him Shimshon. The boy was blessed by HaSh-m, and it was he who eventually saved Yisrael from the hands of the Pelishtim, as the angel had predicted.

24)[line 23]"[ותאמר אם הנער חי ה' וחי נפשך אם אעזבך;] ויקם וילך אחריה""[VA'TOMER EM HA'NA'AR, 'CHAI HASH-M V'CHEI NAFSHECHA IM E'EZVEKA!'] VA'YAKAM VA'YELECH ACHAREHAH" - "[And the mother of the boy said, 'By the life of HaSh-m and by your life, I will not leave you!'] And he (Elisha) arose and followed her [advice]." (Melachim II 4:30) (ELISHA AND THE SHUNAMIS)

(a)The Shunamis woman, who was the sister of Avishag ha'Shunamis (the woman who kept David ha'Melech warm in his old age), was an important woman of means, and from the very first time that Elisha visited Shunem when she prevailed upon him to eat in her home, he would always eat there.

(b)On one visit, Elisha - grateful for what the Shunamis had done for him - asked her if there was something that he could do for her, such as use his influence to intercede on her behalf with the king or with some official. When she replied that there was nothing that she needed, Gechazi pointed out that she was childless and that her husband was old and there was little likelihood that they would have children. Elisha blessed her that she would bear a son in exactly one year. The blessing materialized, and she bore a son the following year.

(b)When the child died suddenly, she placed him on Elisha's bed and called to her husband to send her a servant and a donkey, so that she could travel quickly to the Navi, but she did not tell her husband what happened. Anticipating a miracle, she preferred not to inform him so that the miracle should be performed with as little publicity as possible.

(c)The servant led her to the Navi at Mount Carmel. The Navi saw her from a distance and sent his servant, Gechazi, to run and greet her, and to ask her whether everything was alright. Once again, she replied merely, "Shalom," without divulging the reason for her visit.

(d)Arriving before the Navi, she fell at his feet. Gechazi stepped forward to push her away and prevent her from holding on to the Navi's feet, but the Navi, sensing her distress but not knowing its source, ordered him to leave her alone. The Chachamim understand that the word "l'Hadfah" in the verse means that Gechazi grabbed the Shunamis in an indecent way while attempting to push her away.

(e)Elisha sent Gechazi back to the house with instructions neither to greet anyone on the way nor to respond to anyone who greets him. Upon arrival at the house, he wasto place Elisha's staff on the body of the dead child.

(f)Gechazi did not obey Elisha's instructions. Not only did he stop everyone he met on the way, he also mocked Elisha, asking everyone whether they really believed that the stick he was holding could possibly revive the dead. In the end, Elisha was forced to go himself to revive the boy, which he succeeded in doing only after praying to HaSh-m for Divine assistance. (The son of the Shunamis grew up to be the prophet, Chavakuk.)

25a)[line 33]רוחיןRUCHIN- spirits

b)[line 33]שידיןSHEIDIN- demons

c)[line 34]ליליןLILIN- female demons

26)[line 40]העלה זרזי תאנים על בשרוHE'ELAH ZERADEI TE'ENIM AL BESARO- he covered his flesh with a belt made of the young tender branches of fig trees. (Adam did this in order to cause himself discomfort, as a measure of repentance. According to this Gemara, when the verse says that Adam and Chavah sewed themselves fig-leaf attire, it means that they wore fig leaves to atone for their sin -TORAS CHAYIM.)

27)[line 48]"ולא אמר...""V'LO AMAR..."- "But no one says, 'Where is HaSh-m, my maker, who gives songs in the night'" (Iyov 35:10) - Rebbi Yirmeyah ben Elazar reads this verse to mean, "Whoever learns Torah during the night will not have to ask, 'Where is HaSh-m, [who could have saved my house from being destroyed?']"

28)[last line]"ושמתיה למורש קיפוד""V'SAMTIHA L'MORASH KIPOD"- "I will also make it a possession for owls (possibly hedgehogs or porcupines), with desolate marshes and pools of water; and I will sweep it with the broom of destruction, says HaSh-m, Lord of Hosts" (Yeshayah 14:23).

29)[last line]"ושמתי שומרון לעי השדה למטעי כרם""V'SAMTI SHOMRON L'IY HA'SADEH L'MATA'EI CHAREM"- "I will turn Shomron into a heap of rubble in the field, into a place for planting vineyards" (Michah 1:6).