MUSIC IN THE MIKDASH
(Mishnah): We never have less than 21 Teki'os (trumpet blasts, in one day) in the Mikdash, and never more than 48;
We never have less than two (Leviyim playing) lyres, nor more than six. We always have between two and 12 flutes.
The flute is played in front of the Mizbe'ach on 12 days every year -- during the Shechitah of Pesach, and of Pesach Sheni, on the first day of Pesach, on Shavu'os, and all eight days of Sukos (i.e. including Shemini Atzeres);
Wooden flutes were used, and not copper, for they sound nicer.
A solitary flute (Rambam - with only one hole) would be heard at the end of the song, for it sounds nicer this way.
R. Meir says, the flute players were slaves of Kohanim;
R. Yosi says, they were from families of Beis Pagrim and Beis Tzifra from Am'um. Their lineage was fine. Kohanim would marry girls of these families;
R. Chanina ben Antignos says, they were Leviyim.
(Gemara): Our Mishnah is unlike R. Yehudah:
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We never have less than seven Teki'os, and never more than 16.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: (Each Teru'ah (broken sound) is preceded and followed by Teki'ah (a simple sound).) R. Yehudah counts each Teki'ah-Teru'ah-Teki'ah like one sounding, and Chachamim count them like three.
Question: What is R. Yehudah's reason?
Answer: He learns from "u'Skatem Teru'ah," and "Teru'ah Yiske'u" shows that Teki'ah and Teru'ah are the same.
Chachamim say, this teaches that each Teru'ah is preceded and followed by Teki'ah.
Question: Why don't Chachamim learn like R. Yehudah?
Answer: They learn from "uv'Hakhil Es ha'Kahal Siske'u v'Lo Sari'u." If it was all one, the Torah would not command to do half the Mitzvah!
R. Yehudah holds that is not the Mitzvah of Teru'ah. It is merely a sign to gather people.
Question: Like which Tana is the following?
(Rav Kahana): There must be no separation at all between Teki'ah and Teru'ah.
Answer: It is like R. Yehudah. (They are part of one sound, so one may not interrupt in the middle.)
Objection: This is obvious!
Answer: One might have thought that it is even like Chachamim, and they disagree with R. Yochanan:
(R. Yochanan): If one heard the nine sounds (three series of Teki'ah-Teru'ah-Teki'ah) at nine different times during the day, he fulfilled the Mitzvah.
Suggestion: Perhaps this is correct! (Rav Kahana holds like Chachamim, and argues with R. Yochanan.)
Rejection: If so, he should not have said "at all." (Eeven if Chachamim disagree with R. Yochanan, surely they allow a small break between sounds.)
DAYS ON WHICH FULL HALLEL IS SAID
(Mishnah): The flute is played on 12 days...
Question: Why is it played specifically on these days?
Answer: On these days (even) individuals say full Hallel;
(R. Yochanan): On 18 days every year, individuals say full Hallel: all eight days of Sukos, the eight days of Chanukah, the first day of Pesach, and Shavu'os. (The Mishnah omits Chanukah, since it has no special Korban. R. Yochanan omits the times of Shechitas Pesach Rishon and Sheni, for then we say Hallel only in the Mikdash.)
In Chutz la'Aretz (where two days of Yom Tov are kept), there are 21 days -- nine days of Sukos, eight days of Chanukah, the first two days of Pesach, and two days of Shavu'os.
Question: Why are all days of Sukos included, but not all days of Pesach?
Answer: Every day of Sukos a different Korban (Musaf) is brought, whereas the same Korban is brought every day of Pesach.
Question: If so, we should say full Hallel on Shabbos. It has a unique Musaf!
Answer: Shabbos is not called "Mo'ed" (a designated time).
Question: We should say full Hallel on Rosh Chodesh, for (it has its own Musaf, and) it is called Mo'ed!
Answer: It is permitted to do Melachah on Rosh Chodesh;
"Ha'Shir Yihyeh Lachem k'Leil Hiskadesh Chag" teaches that song (full Hallel) is required only on days when (even) the night is Mekudash (i.e. Melachah is forbidden. We still require a different Korban, therefore we do not ask that Hallel should be said on the last Yom Tov (seventh day) of Pesach.)
Question: We should say full Hallel on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur. They are called Mo'ed, and one may not do Melachah on these days!
Answer: We do not say Hallel due to R. Avahu's teaching;
(R. Avahu): The angels asked Hash-m "Why don't Yisrael sing Hallel on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur?"
Hash-m: The King is sitting on the throne of judgment, the books of life and death open in front of Him. Is it possible for Yisrael to sing to Me?! (They are too afraid!)
SAYING HALLEL FOR MIRACLES
Question: Why do we say full Hallel on Chanukah? It does not have any of these! (It has no special Korban, it is not called Mo'ed, and Melachah is permitted)!
Answer: We say Hallel due to the miracle.
Question: If so, we should also say Hallel on Purim!
Answer #1 (R. Yitzchak): We do not say Hallel for miracles outside of Eretz Yisrael.
Question (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): We say Hallel (on the first day of Pesach) for leaving Miztrayim, which was in Chutz la'Aretz!
Answer #1 (Beraisa): Before Bnei Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael, one could sing Shirah (for a miracle) anywhere. After Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael, one may sing Shirah (for a miracle) only in Eretz Yisrael. (Beis Yosef OC 490 - we do not say full Hallel for Keri'as Yam Suf (on the seventh day of Pesach) for the same reason that the angels were forbidden to sing that night, i.e. because Hash-m's creations (the Mitzriyim) were drowning (Megilah 10b).)
Answer #2 (to Question (c) - Rav Nachman): Reading Megilas Esther is like singing Hallel (we recount His miracles)!
Answer #2 (to Question (d:1) - Rava): Hallel begins "Halelu Avdei Hash-m." After leaving Mitzrayim, we were no longer slaves of Paro, only of Hash-m;
It is inappropriate to say this on Purim, for even after the miracle, we were still under Achashverosh's rule.
Question: Why did Rav Nachman say that reading the Megilah is like singing Hallel? The Beraisa teaches that we do not sing Shirah for a miracle in Chutz la'Aretz (after entering Eretz Yisrael!)
Answer: After Yisrael were exiled, it again became permitted to sing for miracles in Chutz la'Aretz.
INSTRUMENTS IN THE MIKDASH
(Mishnah): A copper Avuv (flute) was not used, (rather of wood... )
Question: The Reisha calls it a Chalil!
Answer (Rav Papa): Also Chalil means flute. It is called Chalil for its sound is Chali (pleasant).
(Beraisa): The flute in the Mikdash was a thin peeled reed, from the days of Moshe. A king commanded to cover it with gold. It no longer sounded pleasant. They removed the covering, and it sounded pleasant like before.
There were copper cymbals in the Mikdash. They sounded pleasant. They became dented. Chachamim imported craftsmen from Alexandria, who fixed them. They no longer sounded pleasant. They removed the craftsmen's repair, and they sounded pleasant like before.
There was a copper mortar in the Mikdash (for pounding spices for Ketores). It made a clear sound (which is good for spices). It became dented. Chachamim sent to Alexandria for craftsmen, who fixed it. It did not make spices like before. They removed the craftsmen's repair, and it made spices like before.
These two Kelim remained from the first Mikdash. They became dented, and they could not be fixed - "Nechoshes Memorat" (the copper was so fine, it could be peeled), "Nechoshes Maruk" (shining), "u'Chlei Nechoshes Mutzhav" (gold-tinted).
(Rav or Shmuel): Each of them was worth as much as two gold Kelim. (The last verse ends "Shenayim Chamudos ka'Zahav.")
(The other of Rav and Shmuel): Together, they were worth as much as one gold Kli.
(Rav Yosef - Beraisa): Together, they were worth as much as one gold Kli.
(Beraisa - R. Noson): There were two cymbals and two mortars - we read "Shenayim" like "Sheniyim."
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): The opening of the Shilua'ach spring was only the size of an Isar (coin). The king commanded to widen it, to increase its flow. (Maharsha - this is Gichon, where kings are anointed. A big flow is a good Omen that his kingship will last). The flow decreased. They narrowed the opening, and it resumed flowing like it used to - "Al Yis'halel Chacham b'Chachmaso v'Al Yis'halel Gibor bi'Gevuraso."
Similarly, R. Shimon ben Gamliel used to say there were not Redulim in the Mikdash.
Question: What are Redulim?
Answer (Abaye): It is a bell with a clapper (Rashi; Aruch - it is Ardablus, a kind of flute). It gives a coarse sound, and it disconcerts the music.