PAYING ACCORDING TO HESEG YAD
If he gave four Shekalim for the first Erech and one for the latter, he was Yotzei for the latter, but not for the first.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: All his money was Meshu'abad to the first Erech. He was obligated to give all of it.
Question (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): If Reuven had five Shekalim, and he said "Erki Alai twice, at once," what is the law?
Since he accepted both at the same time, each Erech has an equal lien on his money, he can give part of his money for one and the rest for the other (and fulfill both);
Or, since it is proper for him to give all of his money for each one, he does not fulfill either with less than five!
This question is not resolved.
(Mishnah): There is no Erech less than one Shekel. There is no Erech more...
Question: Why was this repeated?
Answer: We infer that there is no Erech less than one, but there are Erchin (i.e. of Heseg Yad) more than one (and less than the full Erech). There is no Erech more than 50, but there are Erchin of less than 50 Shekalim;
The Seifa is Stam (anonymous). It is like Chachamim. (This shows that the Halachah follows Chachamim.)
PISCHEI NIDAH OF A TO'EH
(When a woman becomes a Nidah, she is a Nidah for seven days (including the first day). The 11 days after the seven are days of Zivah. If she sees blood on three consecutive days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. (She is a Zavah until she has seven consecutive clean days. Then she immerses to become Tehorah and brings a Korban). The next time she sees blood after the days of Zivah she begins her next Nidah cycle.)
(Mishnah): A To'eh (a woman who has no idea where she is in her Nidah cycle) always needs at least seven (consecutive clean) days to achieve certainty, and never more than 17.
(Gemara - Beraisa): If a To'eh saw blood today, her Pesach is 17 days. (I.e. after 17 consecutive clean days, the next blood she sees definitely begins Nidah. The days of Zivah will certainly have ended. Even if she was a Zavah, she already had (more than) the required seven clean days. If the next time she sees blood is on day 17 (or earlier), it could be the beginning of Nidah (e.g. if today was the last day of Zivah), or Dam Zivah (if today she began Nidah). We cannot know.)
If a To'eh saw blood for two or three (consecutive) days (including today), her Pesach is 17 days (perhaps her days of Zivah ended yesterday. She was not a Zavah, so today she begins Nidah. The above reasoning applies).
If a To'eh saw blood for four (consecutive) days (including today), her Pesach is 16 days. (It is possible that she became a Zavah. If so, her next Nidah will begin the first time she sees blood after seven clean days. If not, at most the first two days of blood were days of Zivah (three days would have made her a Zavah). At the latest, she becomes a Nidah on day three. At least two days of Nidah have passed. After 16 clean days, she surely finished the days of Zivah. Her next blood begins Nidah.)
Similarly, if she saw blood for five, six, seven,... or 11 days, her Pesach is 15, 14,... or nine days. (It is possible that she became a Zavah. If not, at most the first two days of blood were days of Zivah. At the latest she became Nidah on day three, so the days of Zivah will surely be finished 20 days after the first day of blood. This is why the Pesach (number of clean days) and the number of days of blood add up to 20 in any one of these cases.)
If she saw blood for 12 days, her Pesach is eight days. (She surely became a Zavah. If the first three days were days of Zivah, this is clear. If at most two of those were days of Zivah, she become Nidah no later than day three, so (new) days of Zivah began no later than day 10, and she saw on 10, 11 and 'today' (day 12). If she became a Zavah before today, at least three days of Zivah passed, so after today and seven clean days, the 11 days of Zivah are surely finished, so her next blood begins Nidah. If she became a Zavah only today, it was the third day of Zivah. Seven clean days will end on day 10 of Zivah. If she saw blood the next day (day 11 of Zivah), it is not Nidah! Therefore, she must see eight clean days to know that her next blood is Nidah.)
If she saw blood for 13 days, her Pesach is seven days. (She surely became a Zavah no later than day 12, like we just explained above. At least three days of Zivah passed. After day 13 and seven clean days, the 11 days of Zivah are surely finished. Her next blood begins Nidah.)
(Summary): The Pesach of a To'eh is always at least seven days and never more than 17 days.
Question (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): Why does she need so many days? (In any case, after seven clean days she can immerse and become Tehorah!)
Answer (Rabah): The Beraisa teaches the number of days needed in order that she will know that her next blood is Nidah.
(Beraisa): Any To'eh is a Zavah. She brings a Korban but it is not eaten;
The only exception is a To'eh whose Pesach is seven or eight days. Her Korban is eaten.
Objection: #1: We cannot say that any To'eh is (surely) a Zavah!
Objection #2: Not every To'eh brings a Korban, i.e. if she saw only one or two days! (Nothing suggests that she is a Zavah Gedolah.)
Correction: Rather, any (possible) Zavah (she saw at least three days) who was To'eh brings a Korban, but it is not eaten. (Perhaps at most two days were days of Zivah);
The only exception is a To'eh whose Pesach is seven or eight days. Her Korban is eaten. (She was definitely a Zavah.)
THE LONGEST AND SHORTEST TZARA'AS
(Mishnah): The shortest Tzara'as (i.e. Hesger, during which we wait to see if the Tum'ah will become Muchlat) is one week. The longest is three weeks.
(Gemara): Tzara'as of a person (i.e. on a scald or wound) is decided within one week. Tzara'as on a house is decided within three weeks.
(Rav Papa): "Tzidkascha k'Harerei Kel" refers to Tzara'as on people. (Hash-m was gracious. It is decided quickly.) "Mishpatecha Tehom Rabah" refers to Tzara'as of houses. (Maharsha - houses bear the brunt of Hash-m's anger (the longest Hesger). People are spared.)
Question: What is the simple meaning of the verse?
Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): If not for Hash-m's Tzedakah, who could bear His awesome judgment?!
Answer #2 (Rabah): Hash-m's Tzedakah is great like mountains, because His judgment is so deep.
Question: What do they argue about?
Answer: They argue like the following Amora'im:
(R. Elazar): Hash-m is Kovesh (presses on the pan (on the balance scale) holding merits, in order that they will outweigh sins. This is like Rashi in Rosh Hashanah, and Maharsha);
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Hash-m lifts up (sins, so they will not press down, in order that merits will outweigh them).
Rabah holds like R. Elazar. (Hash-m presses down on merits to the depths, in order to overcome people's liability);
Rav Yehudah holds like R. Yosi. (If He would not lift sins to the height of mountains, who could bear His awesome judgment?!)
MAXIMUMS AND MINIMUMS
(Mishnah): We do not make less than four Ubar (i.e. 30 day) months in a year. It is improper to have more than eight;
Shtei ha'Lechem are eaten on Shavu'os. This is never before the second day (from when they were baked), and never later than the third day. (The baking does not overrides Shabbos or Yom Tov. Therefore, they are baked on Erev Shavu'os, and they are eaten on the second day. However, if Erev Shavu'os is Shabbos, they are baked the day before that, and they are eaten on the third day.)
Lechem ha'Panim is never eaten before the ninth day, and never later than the 11th day. (If Erev Shabbos is not Yom Tov, they are baked then, and they are eaten on the following Shabbos, which is the ninth day. If Erev Shabbos is Yom Tov, they are baked the previous day, and they are eaten on the tenth day. If Rosh Hashanah falls on Thursday and Friday, they are baked Erev Rosh Hashanah, and eaten on the 11th day. Really, they are eaten the next night, for next Shabbos is Yom Kipur.)
A (healthy) baby is never circumcised before day eight, nor after day 12. (If we know which day he was born, he is circumcised on day eight. If he was born Bein ha'Shemashos (it is a Safek it it was day one, or the night beginning day two), we must wait until day nine to circumcise. (If he was born at night, day nine is his eighth day. One may not circumcise before this.) Perhaps this is really day nine from birth. Circumcision overrides Kodesh (Shabbos or Yom Tov) only if it is (definitely) on day eight, so if day nine is Kodesh, we must wait for the next Chol day. This can be day 10, or day 11 (if days nine and 10 are both Kodesh), or day 12 (if nine, 10 and 11 are all Kodesh, i.e. if the two days of Rosh Hashanah precede or follow Shabbos).)