ERCHIN 30 (13 Tamuz) - Today's Dafyomi study is dedicated to the blessed memory of U.S. Army Staff Sgt. Seymour Ira Gottlieb (Yitzchak Shimon ben Chaim Shlomo Yosef ha'Levi, Z"L), who died in World War II on the 13th of Tamuz 5704 in the battle of St. Lo, France, fighting the Nazis to save his Jewish brethren in Europe.

[30a - 48 lines; 30b - 55 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Mishnah and Gemara 30a [line 22]:

The words "la'Ish Asher Machar Lo" לאיש אשר מכר לו

should be "la'Asher Machar Lo" לאשר מכר לו (Chilufei Girsa'os in the Mishnayos - see below, entry #2)

[2] Gemara 30b [line 5]:

The words "d'Tanya Ki Tov Lo Imach" דתניא כי טוב לא עמך

should be "d'Tanya k'Sachir k'Soshav Yiheyeh Imach"דתניא כשכיר כתושב יהיה עמך (Vayikra 25:40), according to Tosfos DH d'Sanya

[3] Gemara 30b [line 24]:

"she'Lavah b'Ribis... she'Mocher Es Bito" שלוה ברבית ... שמוכר את בתו

The discussion of "she'Mocher Es Bito" should come before "she'Lavah b'Ribis" (this is the intention of the Gilyon ha'Shas, and this is the way the Sugya is presented in Kidushin 20a)

[4] Gemara 30b [line 32]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #7


1)[line 13]הב ליה דמיה וליסקHAV LEI DEMEI, V'LEISAK- give him the money, and let him go up. That is, normally the purchaser is not reimbursed for the period that the field was in his hands when the original owner buys it back. However, we might have thought that if the purchaser plowed the field and returned the plowed field to its original owner, he should at least be reimbursed for the price of plowing a field, since the furrow will benefit the original owner.

2)[line 26](לאיש אשר) [לאשר] מכר לו(LA'ISH ASHER) [LA'ASHER] MACHAR LO- the Mishnah teaches that without the word "Ish," the simple meaning of the words "la'Asher Machar Lo" (Vayikra 25:27) is that the payment is given to the person to whom the field was sold first. From the fact that the Torah adds the word "Ish" ("la'Ish Asher Machar Lo") and does not say merely, "la'Asher Machar Lo," we derive that the payment is sometimes given to "the person," referring to the person who is presently in the field.

3)[line 40]הכסיפהHICHSIFAH- it deteriorated and fell in value


4)[line 1]הריני כבן עזאי בשוקי טבריאHAREINI K'VEN AZAI B'SHUKEI TEVERYA- (a) I can keenly answer any question put to me, just like Ben Azai who taught Torah in the marketplaces of Teveryah. Ben Azai had a power of reasoning greater than all other sages of his day (RASHI here and in Sotah 45a); (b) I can answer any question put to me, just like Ben Azai did in the marketplaces of Teveryah (RABEINU GERSHOM here, RASHI to Kidushin 20a)

5)[line 7]פת קיברPAS KIVAR- (O.F. seondier) bread made from flour of inferior quality

6)[line 9]מוכיןMOCHIN- soft substances such as hackled (combed) wool, rag, lint, etc.

7)[line 13]אבקה של שביעיתAVKAH SHEL SHEVI'IS- the less severe prohibitions associated with Shevi'is (see Background to Bechoros 30:6). This refers to buying or selling produce of Shevi'is. The Torah tells us that the produce of Shevi'is is ours "to be eaten" (Vayikra 25:6), from which the Chachamim infer, "to be eaten, but not to be traded." (Tosfos (DH Kamah) explains that this prohibition is referred to as "Avkah Shel Shevi'is" even though it is forbidden mid'Oraisa, because the main prohibitions of Shevi'is involve actually working the ground.)

8)[line 15]"בשנת היובל הזאת תשובו איש אל אחוזתו""B'SHNAS HA'YOVEL HA'ZOS TASHUVU ISH EL ACHUZASO"- "In this Yovel year, you shall return each man to his ancestral land" (Vayikra 25:13). The Gemara infers that the punishment of having to sell one's property is given to one who sells Shevi'is fruit, Midah k'Neged Midah, measure for measure. Since the punishment is having to sell one's property, the sin must have involved selling in a forbidden manner (TOSFOS DH KAMAH). Alternatively, the sin of selling fruit during Shevi'is is hinted in the words, "v'Chi Simkeru Mimkar," which immediately follow this verse. This words can be read, "If you sell items [in a forbidden manner]..." (RASHI Kidushin 20a DH bi'Shenas).

9)[line 24]שלוה ברביתSHE'LAVAH B'RIBIS- he borrows with interest

10)[line 29]שנאמר "לגר"SHE'NE'EMAR "L'GER"- the verse says, "v'Chi Sasig Yad Ger v'Soshav Imach u'Mach Achicha Imo, v'Nimkar l'Ger Toshav Imach O l'Eker Mishpachas Ger" - "And if a sojourner or stranger becomes rich [by living] with you, and your brother who dwells with him becomes poor, and sells himself to the stranger or sojourner [who lives] with you, or to an idol of the stranger's family" (Vayikra 25:47).

11a)[line 30]גר צדקGER TZEDEK- for a convert who accepts upon himself all of the Mitzvos

b)[line 30]גר תושבGER TOSHAV- see Background to Erchin 29:4.

12)[line 34]דלא ליטמע בעובדי כוכביםD'LO LITAMA B'OVDEI KOCHAVIM- so that he should not become lost amongst the idolaters

13)[line 42]סיניSINAI- one with an encyclopedic knowledge of the Torah, such that it is as if he received it from Mount Sinai

14)[line 43]"ומצא" פרט למצוי"U'MATZA" PRAT L'MATZUY- the word "u'Matza" (Vayikra 25:26) implies that he cannot force the buyer to allow him to redeem himself (or his Sedeh Achuzah) with money or property that he owned at the time of the sale

15)[line 52]אמר רבי שמעון מה טעםAMAR REBBI SHIMON, MAH TA'AM?- Rebbi Shimon always looks for the reasoning behind the Torah's commandments (Darish Taima d'Kra)