WHEN IS TEMED LIKE WATER?
Answer #1 (Rabah bar Avuha): Chachamim and R. Yehudah argue when it fermented; our Mishnah is R. Yehudah.
Support (R. Yosi bar Chanina): The argument is when it fermented.
(Rav Nachman citing Rabah bar Avuha): If one bought Temed with money of Ma'aser Sheni; and later, it fermented, the purchase was valid.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: This shows retroactively that it was not mere water.
Question: The Mishnah says that if it did not ferment, one may not buy it with Ma'aser money, and it disqualifies a Mikveh. Perhaps if it was left, it would have fermented!
Answer (Rabah): The case is, some of it was left around, and it did not ferment.
Answer #2 (Rava): The Mishnah is R. Yochanan ben Nuri.
(Mishnah): If a Kortov (a 64th of a Lug, about 6-10 milliliters) of wine fell into water, and the volume of the mixture is three Lugim, and it looks like wine, the mixture does not disqualify a Mikveh;
Similarly, if a Kortov of milk fell into water, and the volume of the mixture is three Lugim, and it looks like water, the mixture does not disqualify a Mikveh;
R. Yochanan ben Nuri says, it all depends on the appearance. (If it looks like water, it disqualifies a Mikveh.)
Also here, R. Yochanan ben Nuri says that it all depends on the appearance. The appearance and taste of unfermented Temed is like water.
Rav Nachman argues with R. Elazar.
(R. Elazar): R. Yehudah and Chachamim agree that one may not tithe an unfermented Temed from another unfermented Temed.
R. Elazar holds that they argue about unfermented Temed;
R. Yehudah does not allow taking Ma'aseros for one unfermented Temed from another one, lest one of them is Tevel and the other is exempt, and the Ma'aser is invalid.
(Beraisa): If (Tamei) Temed is unfermented, one can be Metaher it through Hashakah (touching it to a Mikveh, because it is considered water).
(Rava): This works only if it became Tamei after it became Temed; but if Tamei water was used to make Temed, touching it to a Mikveh does not help.
Objection (Rav Gaviha): Presumably, it doesn't work if the water was Tamei from the beginning because the water is at the bottom, and the wine floats on top, so the water does not touch the Mikveh;
The same applies if it became Tamei after it was Temed!
Rather, we must say that the water and wine mix together, so touching to the Mikveh helps no matter when it became Tamei.
DIFFERENT AGES OF GIRLS
(Mishnah): Whenever a man can sell his daughter to be a slave (she is the proper age), there is no fine if she is seduced or raped. Whenever there is a fine for a girl, her father cannot sell her.
(Gemara - Rav Yehudah): Our Mishnah is R. Meir, but Chachamim say that sometimes there is a fine for a girl who can be sold.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): A girl can be sold from birth until Na'arus (when she brings two pubic hairs after 12 years of age), but there is no fine for her. During the next six months (after which she becomes a Bogeres) there is a fine for her, but she cannot be sold.
Chachamim say, there is a fine for her from the age of three years until Bagrus.
Question: Do they hold that there is a fine, but she cannot be sold?!
Answer: They mean that, there is a fine for her even at times when she may be sold (they agree that she can be sold from birth until Na'arus).
(Mishnah): When a girl (is at an age when she) can do Mi'un, she cannot do Chalitzah. When she can do Chalitzah, she cannot do Mi'un.
(Gemara - Rav Yehudah): Our Mishnah is R. Meir, but Chachamim say that there is a girl that can do Mi'un, even though she is at an age that she can do Chalitzah.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): A girl can do Mi'un until she brings two hairs (Na'arus. She can do Chalitzah anytime after this);
R. Yehudah says, she can do Mi'un until the hairs are long.
SEPARATING BETWEEN SHABBOS AND YOM TOV
(Mishnah): Whenever the Shofar is sounded (between Shabbos and Yom Tov), we do not say Havdalah (in prayer, or over a cup of wine). Whenever we say Havdalah, we do not sound the Shofar.
When Yom Tov is on Erev Shabbos, the Shofar is sounded (before Shabbos begins), but there is no Havdalah (in Kidush of Shabbos). When Yom Tov is after Shabbos, we make Havdalah (in Kidush of Yom Tov) and do not sound the Shofar.
The text of this Havdalah is 'ha'Mavdil (He who separates) Bein Kodesh l'Kodesh';
R. Dosa says, it is 'ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh Chamur l'Kodesh ha'Kal (between severe Kodesh and light Kodesh).'
(Gemara) Question: How is the Shofar sounded?
Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): He blows Teki'ah (a long note) and concludes this note with Teru'ah (shorter notes).
Answer #2 (Rav Asi): He blows Teki'ah and Teru'ah in the same breath.
Rav Asi enacted in Hutzal to blow according to his opinion.
Question (against both answers - Beraisa): If Yom Tov falls on Erev Shabbos we blow Teki'ah, but not Teru'ah.
Suggestion: We do not blow Teru'ah at all.
Answer #1 (for Rav Yehudah): We do not blow Teru'ah by itself, rather, amidst the Teki'ah.
Answer #2 (for Rav Asi): We do not blow Teru'ah in a second breath, rather it is in the same breath as the Teki'ah.
(Mishnah): When Yom Tov is after Shabbos...
Question: At what place in Havdalah do we say 'ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh...'?
Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah and Rav Nachman): We say this at the end of Havdalah.
Answer #2 (Rav Sheshes brei d'Rav Idi): We say it also in the beginning.
The Halachah does not follow Rav Sheshes.
(Mishnah - R. Dosa): He says 'Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Chamur l'Kodesh ha'Kal'.
The Halachah does not follow R. Dosa.
(R. Zeira): When Yom Tov falls in the middle of the week, the text of Havdalah is 'He who separates between Kodesh and profane, and between light and darkness, and between Yisrael and the Nochrim, and between Shabbos and the six days of work.'
Question: Why is this said for Yom Tov?
Answer: One lists the various separations that Hash-m makes.