[102a - 46 lines; 102b - 40 lines]


(a)It is forbidden to ingest the blood of animals and birds, whether they are Kosher or non-Kosher. The verse states, "v'Chol Dam Lo Sochelu b'Chol Moshevoseichem, la'Of vela'Behemah" - "You shall eat no kind of blood, whether it is of bird or of beast, in any of your settlements" (Vayikra 7:26). Because of this prohibition, slaughtered animals must be salted or roasted over a fire to remove their blood before they can be cooked and eaten.

(b)The blood of fish, locusts, Sheratzim (rodents or lizards), insects or small crawling creatures, and humans is not included in the prohibition of Dam (Kerisus 21a). However, the blood of non-Kosher fish and locusts is prohibited because it is a secretion of a non-Kosher creature. The blood of Sheratzim is also prohibited because it is considered like their flesh. Human blood that has become separated from the body is prohibited mid'Rabanan (Kerisus 22a).

(c)Blood of an animal may be eaten if it is still inside the raw flesh of the animal as it was when the animal died or was slaughtered. Only when the blood has been removed from its original location after the animal's death, for example, by being cooked or boiled, does the blood become prohibited (TOSFOS to Chulin 14a DH v'Nasvin).

(d)If a person ingests a k'Zayis of blood b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he sins b'Shogeg (unintentionally) he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid). If the blood did not pour from the animal's major arteries but rather was inside the animal's limbs when it died (Dam Evarim) and was extracted afterward, the punishment of Kares does not apply. If it dripped from a major artery after the main flow subsided (Dam ha'Tamtzis), the Tana'im argue whether the punishment of Kares applies (Kerisus 20b).

2)[line 3]TEMEI'IN- non-Kosher [animals, birds, etc.]

3a)[line 8]' V'REBBI YEHUDAH LAMAH LEI KRA?- But why should Rebbi Yehudah require a verse to prove this Halachah (that Ever Min ha'Chai applies also to non-Kosher animals)?

b)[line 9] LEISEI ISUR EVER LEICHUL AL ISUR TUM'AH- the prohibition of Ever Min ha'Chai should be added to the prohibition of non-Kosher flesh because Rebbi Yehudah rules that Isur Chal Al Isur when the new Isur is more stringent ("Isur Chamur") than the previous one (see Background to Chulin 101:6)

4)[line 10] SHE'KEN ISURO NOHEG BI'VNEI NOACH- since, according to Rebbi Yehudah (and the Gemara will soon state that this is the consensus of opinion), Benei Noach are prohibited to eat the Ever Min ha'Chai of non-Kosher animals

5)[line 11], IN, HACHI NAMI- yes, indeed this is also true (that Rebbi Yehudah does not require a verse for this prohibition)

6)[line 22] EINO NOHEG ELA BI'VEHEMAH TEHORAH BILVAD- (as opposed to the Chachamim, Rebbi Meir rules that Ever Min ha'Chai only applies to Behemos, Kosher domesticated farm animals, and not to Chayos, Kosher non-farm animals)

7)[line 23]( )(SIMAN SHMUEL SHILA SHIMI)- this is a mnemonic device to remember the three different opinions as to which Amora was quoting Rav Chisda or RavYosef, as follows:

1.Amar Rabah bar Shmuel Amar Rav Chisda v'Iteima Rav Yosef

2.Amar Rabah bar Shila Amar Rav Chisda v'Iteima Rav Yosef

3.Amar Rabah bar Shimi Amar Rav Chisda v'Iteima Rav Yosef

8)[line 29]"... ...""... V'ZAVACHTA MI'BEKARCHA UMI'TZONCHA..."- "... and you shall slaughter from your cattle and from your sheep and goats..." (Devarim 12:21).

9)[line 37]MIMENAH- from it (a non-Kosher bird; see Taharos 1:3)

10)[line 37] V'EIN SHECHITAH METAHARASAH- and slaughtering it does not render it fit to be eaten (RASHI proves that this word does not refer to Tum'ah v'Taharah, the ritually impure or pure status of the flesh, since non-Kosher birds never become Temei'im, ritually impure)


(a)Ever Min ha'Chai refers to a limb that is detached from an animal when it is alive, whether the limb contains only flesh (such as the tongue or heart) or whether it contains bone, flesh and sinews (such as a hand or foot). The following Gemara will show that even if the amount of flesh eaten is less than a k'Zayis, as long as the entire limb consists of a k'Zayis (including the bones and sinews), one is liable for having eaten it. Basar Min ha'Chai refers to flesh detached from an animal when it is alive. Both are forbidden to be eaten by the Torah (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 5:1).

(b)For a further discussion of Ever Min ha'Chai, see Background to Chulin 101:15.



A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your El-kim" (Devarim 14:21). A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

13)[line 4]TZIPOR- a Kosher bird

14)[line 7] CHANKAH V'ACHLAH- if he choked the bird to death and then ate it (in which case it is prohibited only because of Isur Achilas Neveilah, and the minimum amount required to be liable to Malkus is a k'Zayis)

15)[line 9] B'CHAYEHA L'EVARIM OMEDES- [an animal] during its lifetime is designated to be cut up into limbs (and eaten). This imparts to each limb the status of Ever Min ha'Chai if it is severed while the animal is alive.

16)[line 15]B'KALANISA- a very lean bird

17)[line 19] MACHASHEVES OCHLIN SHEMAH MACHASHAVAH- the intentions that a person who intends to eat has regarding his food have consequence (i.e. we must reckon with them)

18)[line 19] CHISHEV L'OCHLAH EVER EVER V'ACHLAH KULAH CHAYAV- if he intended to eat it limb by limb but then he actually ended up eating it whole, he is liable (since his intentions showed that Behemah b'Chayeha l'Evarim Omedes)

19)[line 26] L'OCHLAH MESAH- to eat it after it dies (his intentions showed that Behemah b'Chayeha Lav l'Evarim Omedes)

20)[line 29]"[ , ; ] ""... LO SOCHAL HA'NEFESH IM HA'BASAR"- "[But ensure that you do not eat the blood, for the blood is the soul; and] you may not eat the soul with the flesh" (Devarim 12:23). According to Rebbi Yochanan, the limb of a live animal is termed "Nefesh" since it does not regenerate once it is severed, similar to a soul that (in most cases) does not return once a person dies (when his soul is "severed" from his body). As such, the verse is commanding us not to eat the Nefesh, the limb, at the time that it (life) is "Im ha'Basar," "with the Basar," the body (RASHI).

21a)[line 30]"[ ;] , ""... U'VASAR BA'SADEH TEREIFAH LO SOCHEILU, [LA'KELEV TASHLICHUN OSO]"- "[And you shall be holy men to Me;] and you shall not eat any meat that is torn [by the beasts] in the field, [you shall cast it to the dogs]" (Shemos 22:30) - "Basar," "meat [as human food]" is usually not found in the field. According to Rebbi Yochanan, besides teaching the prohibition of eating meat that is "Tereifah" (see next entry), this verse also teaches that anything that leaves the specific boundaries in which it is meant to stay becomes invalidated. As such, Basar Min ha'Chai is prohibited from this verse.

b)[line 31]TEREIFAH

(a)A Tereifah is an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in its death within a year. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year, as mentioned in the Gemara - Chulin 42a.) The signs of the Tereifos do not have logical reasons; rather, they are Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai (RASHI to Chulin 42a DH Naflah; see Insights ibid.).

(b)For a further discussion of the eighteen signs of Tereifos, see Background to Chulin 42:3.

22)[line 33] ZEH EVER MIN HA'CHAI U'VASAR MIN HA'CHAI- according to Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish, this verse is teaching not to eat the Nefesh and not to eat the Basar, at the time that they are connected to each other ("ha'Nefesh Im ha'Basar")