[61a - 17 lines; 61b - 24 lines]

1)[line 1]נשרNESHER (THE 20 BIRDS LISTED IN VAYIKRA WHICH ONE MAY NOT EAT) (Based on Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah" - Vayikra 11:13)

1.NESHER - "eagle"; Tosfos (63a) objects that the eagle has a sign of Taharah, whereas a Nesher has none (see Insights to Chulin 59:3). Therefore, some identify the Nesher as the griffon vulture, the largest carnivorous bird in Israel, with a wing span that often reaches as much as ten feet.

2.PERES - "ossifrage"; alternatively, the bearded vulture that lives in Eretz Yisrael

3.AZNIYAH - "osprey" (sea eagle or fish hawk; a large hawk that feeds on fish); alternatively, the albatross or the black vulture of which two species live in Eretz Yisrael

4.DA'AH - "kite" (a hawklike bird that eats mice, hares, and carrion); alternatively, the vulture

5.AYAH - a bird like the vulture or buzzard; also translated as a kind of goose, magpie, woodpecker, or a kind of owl

6.OREV - raven or crow (O.F. corbeau)

7.BAS HA'YA'ANAH - ostrich; (some identify it with the owl, particularly the dark desert eagle owls, which call back and forth as if answering ("Anah") one another)

8.TACHMAS - owl; alternatively, the falcon which lives in Eretz Yisrael

9.SHACHAF - gull (see below, SHALACH)

10.NETZ - hawk (O.F. esparwier); some sources question this (Tosfos 63a DH ha'Netz) and identify the Netz with the gosshawk (Aruch, Radak)

11.KOS - falcon; alternatively the owl or little owl (Chulin 63a, Tosfos 63a DH Bavas)

12.SHALACH - seagull or pelican, which catches fish from the middle of the ocean in its beak (Chulin 63a)

13.YANSHUF - ibis; alternatively, the falcon or a species of owl (Chulin Tosfos 63a DH Bavas)

14.TINSHEMES - a kind of an owl (O.F. chouette; see Rashi ibid. and DH Bavas sheb'Ofos), probably the barn screech owl; alternatively a bat (O.F. chalve soriz; see Rashi Chulin 63a DH Kipof); see ATALEF below

15.KA'AS - pelican; alternatively, the little desert owl

16.RACHAM - magpie; alternatively, the Egyptian Vulture - the smallest vulture in the Holy Land

17.CHASIDAH - stork (Rashi; Chizkuni; cf. Teshuvos ha'Rosh 0:20); according to Rabeinu Yerucham, the Chasidah is not the stork because the stork is a kosher bird

18.ANAFAH - heron

19.DUCHIFAS - hoopoe; alternatively, the mountain cock or capercaillie, the largest member of the grouse family (cf. Rashi Chulin 63a, who translates it as "paon salvage")

20.ATALEF - bat

2)[line 3]תוריןTORIN- turtledoves

3)[line 7]מדברי סופריםMI'DIVREI SOFRIM- from the words of the Sofrim, Torah sages of the early Tanaic period (i.e. it is a rabbinical enactment)

61b----------------------------------------61b

4)[line 11]ושני כתובין הבאין כאחד אין מלמדיןU'SHNEI KESUVIM HA'BA'IN K'ECHAD EIN MELAMDIN

(a)"Shenei Chesuvim ha'Ba'in k'Echad Ein Melamdin" means that we do not apply elsewhere a Halachah that is learned from two subjects that express the same Halachah (lit. "that come together").

(b)A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" - "father" in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated by that subject to other comparable subjects.

(c)If two verses express the same Halachah regarding two different subjects, the Tana'im argue as to whether or not we can apply the Halachah elsewhere through a Binyan Av. The Tana'im who rule that we cannot, teach that the fact that the Torah found it necessary to repeat the law a second time means that the Halachah is not meant to be applied automatically in all situations.

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