MISHNAH: TASHLUMIN FOR ONE WHO MISSED BRINGING THE KORBAN ON THE FESTIVAL
One who did not bring the Chagigah on the first day of Yom Tov (Sukos), may bring it any remaining day of the festival.
He may even bring it on the last day (Shemini Atzeres).
If the festival passed and he did not bring the Korban Chagigah, he is not responsible to make up for it.
Such a case is called, "A crooked thing that cannot be fixed, and what is missing cannot be numbered" (Koheles 1:15).
(R. Shimon ben Menasya): This verse refers to a person who had immoral relations and begot a Mamzer.
A thief, though, can return what he stole and fix his sin.
(R. Shimon bar Yochai): One who became "crooked" refers only to one who was straight to begin with and then became crooked; this refers to a Talmid Chacham who left the Torah.
THE SOURCE FOR THE TASHLUMIN OF THE FESTIVAL KORBANOS
(R. Yochanan): There is a Gezeirah Shaveh from the word "Atzeres" (written regarding the seventh day of Pesach) to the word "Atzeres" (written regarding Shemini Atzeres), teaching that Shemini Atzeres is part of Sukos with regard to bringing the Korban Chagigah.
(Tana of Beraisa): Tashlumin is learned from the verse, "Celebrate it... seven days in the year... in the seventh month shall you celebrate it" (Vayikra 23:41).
"It" teaches that the obligation to bring the Korban Chagigah applies only on the first day of Yom Tov.
"Seven days" teaches that if one failed to bring the Korban on the first day, he may make up for it on the remaining days of the festival.
"In the seventh month" teaches that if one failed to bring the Korban on the seven days of Sukos, he may bring it on Shemini Atzeres.
THE NATURE OF TASHLUMIN
(R. Yochanan): All of the remaining days are Tashlumin for the first day (they have no independent obligation of a Korban).
(R. Oshiya): All of the remaining days are Tashlumin for themselves (each day has an independent obligation if the Korban was not brought on the first day).
Question: What is the difference between these two opinions?
Answer: One who was lame on the first day, and became well on the second.
According to R. Yochanan, he is not obligated to bring a Korban on the second day, since he was not obligated on the first day (and the remaining days do not have their own obligation).
According to R. Oshiya, he is obligated to bring a Korban on the second day (since each day has its own independent obligation, if a Korban was not brought the first day).
Question: How can R. Yochanan say that if one was exempt on the first day, there is no Tashlumin?
We find that R. Yochanan holds that even though one is unable to bring a Korban, there is still Tashlumin for it (in the case of a Nazir who became Tamei on the night (a time when one is exempt from bringing a Korban) of the eighth day of his purification process for a previous Tum'ah).
We cannot answer that Tum'ah is different and that an exemption from a Korban because of Tum'ah does have Tashlumin, as is proved from Pesach Sheni, because there is an opinion that holds that Pesach Sheni is an independant festival and is not Tashlumin for Pesach Rishon.
Answer: R. Yochanan holds that nighttime is not an unfit time to bring a Korban (and thus the Nazir who became Tamei at night was actually Chayav already to bring Korbanos for his first Tum'ah, and it is not because of Tashlumin).
Question: In the case of a Zav who had two flows on the night after the seventh day of his purification process, and then had one flow the next day, R. Yochanan says he is exempt from bringing a second Korban for this second Tum'ah.
If R. Yochanan holds that nighttime is not an unfit time to bring a Korban, then the Zav should be Chayav to bring another Korban for this second Tum'ah!
Answer: R. Yochanan said that the Zav is exempt only according to the opinion that holds nighttime is an unfit time to bring a Korban.
R. Yochanan's intention was to refute the view of Rav Shisha (in Kerisus), who holds that if any of the flows were in a time of Petur, they do not combine to make three flows.
WHAT IS MISSING CANNOT BE COUNTED (KOHELES 1:15)
Question (Bar Hei-Hei): Why does it say "cannot be counted" and not "cannot be filled?"
Answer: This refers to one who did not join his friends (to "be counted" with them) in the performance of a Mitzvah.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF TZADIKIM
Question (Bar Hei-Hei): "... And you shall see [the difference] between a Tzadik and a Rasha, and between one who serves G-d and one who does not serve Him" (Malachi 3:18) -- the difference between a Tzadik and a Rasha is the same as the difference between "one who serves G-d" and "one who does not!"
Answer (Hillel): The "one who serves Him" and the "one who does not serve Him" are both complete Tzadikim, but there is a great difference between one who has reviewed his learning 100 times to one who has reviewed it 101 times.
Question: Because of one less review, he is called "one who does not serve Him?!"
Answer: Yes, it is like a donkey driver whose rate is 1 Zuz to drive 10 Parsa'os, who charges 2 Zuz to drive 11 Parsa'os.
THE MOST FITTING ATTRIBUTE FOR THE JEW
(Eliyahu): The verse says, "I have forged you, but not with silver; I have chosen you with the furnace of poverty" (Yeshayah 48:10).
This teaches that Hash-m reviewed all of the good Midos to give to the Jewish people, and found only poverty.
(Shmuel): This is why people say, "So fitting is poverty for the Jew, like a red strap on a white horse."
A CROOKED THING THAT CANNOT BE FIXED (KOHELES 1:15).
(R. Shimon ben Menasya, in the Mishnah): This verse refers to a person who had immoral relations and begot a Mamzer.
Question: Only if he had a Mamzer, it is "a crooked thing cannot be fixed?"
But R. Shimon ben Menasya said (in a Beraisa) that this also applies to one who had relations with a married woman (even though she bore no children from the immoral union)!
Answer #1: The Mishnah and Beraisa are referring to two different cases.
The Mishnah is referring to an unmarried, forbidden relation (where a lasting sign of the sin is only if a Mazmer is born of the union).
The Beraisa is referring to a married woman (where there is a lasting sign without a Mamzer, since the woman becomes forbidden to her husband and must be divorced).
Answer #2: Both the Mishnah and Beraisa are referring to a married woman.
The Mishnah is referring to a case of rape (where the woman remains permitted to her husband, and a lasting sign of the sin is only if a Mazmer is born of the union).
The Beraisa is referring to a case of willful transgression (where the woman becomes forbidden to her husband).