1)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses someone who sees people running after a deer or fledglings. What does the Tana say if, as they enter his field, he declares 'Zachsah Li Sadi'? Under which circumstances will he ...

1. ... acquire them?

2. ... not acquire them?

(b)What is the reason for this distinction?

(c)What statement does Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina make with regard to Kinyan Chatzer?

(d)In that case, why does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel require the owner of the field to be standing beside his field, before he can acquire the deer or the fledglings?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses someone who sees people running after a deer or fledglings. If, as they enter his field, he declares 'Zachsah Li Sadi' the Tana rules that he ...

1. ... acquires them provided the deer has a broken leg and the fledglings cannot fly, but ...

2. ... not if the deer's legs are in order and the fledglings are able to fly (see also Tosfos DH 'Hayah').

(b)The reason for this distinction is because in the former case, they are guarded, whereas in the latter case, they are not.

(c)Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina states that a person's Chatzer acquires for him even without his knowledge.

(d)And the reason that Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel requires the owner of the field to be standing beside his field, before he can acquire the deer or the fledglings is (not because he needs to know about the Kinyan, but) because whereas Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina is speaking about a guarded Chatzer, our Mishnah is speaking about one that is unguarded (seeing as the animals are able to enter it and leave it freely).

2)

(a)The Beraisa, discussing the case of an owner who declares in town that the sheaves which he knows his workers forgot in the field should not be Shichechah, states 'Yachol Lo Yehei Shichechah, Talmud Lomar "ve'Shachachta Omer ba'Sadeh", 'be'Sadeh ve'Shachachta, ve'Lo ba'Ir'. What is strange about this Beraisa?

(b)How do we resolve this apparent contradiction? When is Zachur ve'li'be'Sof Shachu'ach considered Shichechah, and when is it not? What does 'Zachur ve'li'be'Sof Shachu'ach' mean?

(c)How do we establish the Beraisa to explain this distinction?

(d)What does this now prove?

2)

(a)The Beraisa, discussing the case of an owner who declares in town that the sheaves which he knows his workers forgot in the field should not be Shichechah, states 'Yachol Lo Yehei Shichechah, Talmud Lomar "ve'Shachachta Omer ba'Sadeh", 'ba'Sadeh ve'Shachachta, ve'Lo Ba'Ir'. This is strange because after insinuating that we have a Pasuk which proves that even in town the Shichechah of the owner should be Shichechah, the Tana concludes that it is not Shichechah.

(b)We resolve this apparent contradiction by establishing the Beraisa by 'Zachur ve'li'be'Sof Shachu'ach' (when the owner remembered the sheaves which his workers subsequently forgot). Consequently, the 'Reisha' is speaking when he is in the field, where this is not considered Shichechah, and the 'Seifa', when he is in town, where it is.

(c)We establish the Beraisa by an unguarded field and the reason that it is not Shichechah in the Reiha is because the owner is guarding his field, whereas in the 'Seifa', where he is not, it is Shichechah ...

(d)... a proof for our previous statement, that if the owner is not standing by his unguarded field, his ownership is not effective with regard to Kinyanim.

3)

(a)After changing the text to ('Yachol Yehei Shichechah' - see Tosfos DH 'Dilma') how do we propose to explain the Beraisa differently than we just did?

(b)We refute this suggestion however, based on the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "Lo Sashuv Lekachto"? What do we learn from there?

3)

(a)After changing the text to ('Yachol Yehei Shichechah' [see Tosfos DH 'Dilma']) we suggest that what the Beraisa means is that once the owner reaches town, the Din of Shichechah simply no longer applies.

(b)We refute this suggestion however, on the basis of the Pasuk "Lo Sashuv Lekachto" which comes to include Shichechas ha'Ir.

4)

(a)Seeing as we need the Pasuk "Lo Sashuv Le'kachto" for a Lav, how can we also use it to include Shikchas ha'Ir?

(b)We persist however, in discarding this Pasuk, citing a Mishnah in Pe'ah. What does the Tana there learn from "Lo Sashuv Lekachto"?

(c)How does Rav Ashi finally solve our problem? If we do not learn Shichechas ha'Ir from "Lo Sashuv Le'kachto", from where do we learn it?

4)

(a)Despite the fact that we need the Pasuk "Lo Sashuv Lekachto" for a La'av, we also use it to include Shichechas ha'Ir from the extra word "Lo Sashuv Lekachto" (since the Torah could have written "Lo Sikachenu").

(b)We persist however, in discarding this Pasuk citing a Mishnah in Pe'ah, which learns from "Lo Sashuv Lekachto" that only Shichechah that is behind the harvester (i.e. that he has already passed) is considered Shichechah, but not Shichechah that is in front of him.

(c)Rav Ashi finally solves our problem by learning Shichechas ha'Ir (not from "Lo Sashuv Le'kachto", but) from "la'Ger ... Yihyeh" (which is superfluous).

11b----------------------------------------11b

5)

(a)Ula and Rabah bar bar Chanah too, agree with Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel and require the owner to stand beside his unguarded field in order to acquire. Rebbi Aba however, queries Ula from a Beraisa, which relates an episode that occurred whilst Raban Gamliel was traveling with the elders in a boat. What problem concerning Ma'asros, confronted Raban Gamliel?

(b)Having already separated Terumah Gedolah, he decided to give his Ma'aser Rishon to Rebbi Yehoshua. How do we know that Rebbi Yehoshua was a Levi? Was he a singer or a gatekeeper?

(c)Why did he choose to give his Ma'aser Ani to Rebbi Akiva?

(d)Why was he taking Ma'aser Ani and not Ma'aser Sheini?

5)

(a)Ula and Rabah bar bar Chanah too, agree with Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel and require the owner to stand beside his unguarded field in order to acquire. Rebbi Aba however, queries Ula from a Beraisa, which relates an episode that occurred whilst Raban Gamliel was traveling with the elders in a boat. The problem that confronted Raban Gamliel was that he had forgotten to separate Ma'asros before leaving on what was presumably a sudden and urgent trip.

(b)Having already separated Terumah Gedolah, he decided to give his Ma'aser Rishon to Rebbi Yehoshua, who was a Levi we know from the Sugya in Erchin which describes how, when he went to help Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda to close the gates, the latter told him to desist, because singers and gatekeepers are forbidden to switch jobs. And the Sifri adds that a Levi who does so is Chayav Misah.

(c)And he chose to give his Ma'aser Ani to Rebbi Akiva because he was a Gabai Tzedakah.

(d)He was taking Ma'aser Ani and not Ma'aser Sheini because it was the third or the sixth year of the cycle, when Ma'aser Ani replaces Ma'aser Sheini.

6)

(a)Bearing in mind that the produce was not in front of them, how was Raban Gamliel Makneh the respective Ma'asros to the two men?

(b)How did Rebbi Aba now query Ula from this Beraisa?

(c)How did Ula react to Rebbi Aba's Kashya?

(d)When Rebbi Aba arrived in Sura, they explained to him why. What sort of Kinyan had Raban Gamliel used, according to Ula? What advantage does that Kinyan have over Kinyan Chatzer?

6)

(a)Bearing in mind that the produce was not in front of them, Raban Gamliel was Makneh the respective Ma'asros to the two men by renting them the land on which the Ma'aser was lying.

(b)Rebbi Aba queried Ula from this Beraisa from the fact that Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Akiva were not standing next to the storehouse that held the Ma'asros (though it is not clear how we know that the storehouse was unguarded).

(c)Ula was unimpressed with Rebbi Aba's Kashya, though he did not explain why.

(d)When Rebbi Aba arrived in Sura however, they explained to him that it was because, according to Ula, Raban Gamliel had been Makneh the Ma'asros using, not a Kinyan Chatzer, but a Kinyan (Metaltelin) Agav (Karka), which does not require the owner to be standing beside his property.

7)

(a)Although Rebbi Zeira accepted this explanation, Rava agreed with Rebbi Aba, who did not. On what grounds did he reject it?

(b)He based this on the fact that Raban Gamliel did not use Kinyan Sudar (which follows Kinyan Chatzer in this regard). What advantage would Kinyan Sudar have had over Kinyan Agav?

(c)So what has Rava proved with this?

(d)But Rava (and Rebbi Aba) erred. What basic difference exists between Kinyan Agav and Kinyan Sudar (based on the fact that the Torah writes (with regard to Matnos Kehunah) "ve'Nasata la'Levi ... "?

7)

(a)Although Rebbi Zeira accepted this explanation, Rava agreed with Rebbi Aba, who did not because 'Tovas Hana'ah' (the right to give it to whichever individual one decides) which is all that Raban Gamliel had in the Ma'asros, cannot be acquired through a Kinyan Agav.

(b)He based this on the fact that Raban Gamliel did not use Kinyan Sudar (which follows Kinyan Chatzer in this regard). The advantage that Kinyan Sudar would have had over Kinyan Agav is that it would have obviated the need for Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Akiva to pay rental for the Karka.

(c)With this Rava has reinstated Rebbi Aba's Kashya on Ula (proving that an unguarded Chatzer does not require the owner to stand beside it in order to acquire from Hefker.

(d)But Rava (and Rebbi Aba) erred because, based on the fact that the Torah writes (with regard to Matnos Kehunah) "ve'Nasata la'Levi ... ", Matnos Kehunah require 'Nesinah, and Kinyan Agav fulfills that requirement, whereas Kinyan Sudar (which is basically an act of swapping), does not.

8)

(a)According to Rav Papa, the Tana'im may well have acquired the Ma'asros with Kinyan Chatzer, in spite of Ula and the other Amora'im, who require the owner to stand beside the property. Why would that not have been necessary in this case?

(b)We prove this distinction from Rebbi Aba bar Kahana, who supported Rebbi Yirmiyah's distinction between Hefker and a gift. This is based on a statement by Rebbi Yirmiyah Amar Rebbi Yochanan. What did he say about the case in our Mishnah, when the owner of the field spied people chasing a deer or fledglings which entered his field, and which the Tana rules, he is Koneh?

(c)What She'eilah did Rebbi Yirmiyah then ask Rebbi Yochanan?

(d)And what does Rebbi Aba bar Kahana conclude?

8)

(a)According to Rav Papa, Raban Gamliel may well have employed Kinyan Chatzer, in spite of Ula and the other Amora'im, who require the owner to stand beside an unguarded field. That would not have been necessary in this case however because it is only with regard to acquiring from Hefker that the owner needs to stand beside his field, not when he acquires the object from an owner (as was the case with Raban Gamliel).

(b)We prove this distinction from Rebbi Aba bar Kahana, who supported Rebbi Yirmiyah's distinction between Hefker and a gift. This is based on a statement by Rebbi Yirmiyah Amar Rebbi Yochanan, who said in the case in our Mishnah, when the owner of the field spied people chasing a deer or fledglings which entered his field that he is Koneh only if, were he to run after the animals, he would be able to catch them.

(c)Rebbi Yirmiyah then asked Rebbi Yochanan whether this would also be necessary if the animals were being given to him as a gift.

(d)Rebbi Aba bar Kahana concludes that Rebbi Yirmiyah was right in his suggestion that a gift is different than Hefker in this regard, and that in the case of the former, it would not be necessary to have to be able to catch the animal.

9)

(a)Rav Shimi queried Rav Papa from Get, which the woman receives from her husband, yet Ula requires her to be standing next to her field when he throws the Get into it. What did Rav Papa reply?

(b)On what grounds did Rav Sheishes b'rei de'Rav Idi refute Rav Papa's reply?

9)

(a)Rav Shimi queried Rav Papa from Get, which the woman receives from her husband, yet Ula requires her to be standing next to her field when he throws the Get into it to which Rav Papa replied that Get is different, inasmuch as it can be given to the woman against her will.

(b)Rav Sheishes b'rei de'Rav Idi refuted Rav Papa's reply however on the grounds that the reverse would be more to the point. Because if even when the recipient's consent is not needed, 'he' is required to stand next to his field, how much more so when it is.

10)

(a)Rav Ashi too, bases the difference between Get and Matanah on the fact that Get is 'Ba'al Korchah', but from a totally different perspective. What does he first of all point out with regard to Kinyan Chatzer, which we learn from Yad, as we explained earlier?

(b)How will that determine the fact that ...

1. ... by Get the women must be standing beside his field?

2. ... by Matanah, this is not necessary?

(c)How can we apply 'Anan Sahadi', and assume that a person wants his field to acquire a Matanah on his behalf, in view of the Pasuk in Mishlei "Sonei Matanos Yichyeh"?

(d)Why will the previous Sevara by Matanah not apply to when one acquires an article from Hefker?

10)

(a)Rav Ashi too, bases the difference between Get and Matanah on the fact that Get is 'Ba'al Korchah', but from a totally different perspective. He first of all points out that although we learn Kinyan Chatzer from Yad, as we explained earlier it is nevertheless no worse than Shelichus (and will acquire under the circumstances that Shelichus would).

(b)Consequently, in the case of ...

1. ... Get, which a woman receives against her will, her Chatzer can act as a Yad, but not as a Shali'ach (since there is no Shelichus without the consent of the Meshale'ach), in which case, she must be standing beside her field (like Yad).

2. ... Matanah this is not necessary, because the Chatzer acts as a Shali'ach, which requires neither the consent, nor the presence, of the owner.

(c)We are justified in applying 'Anan Sahadi' and in assuming that a person wants his field to acquire a Matanah on his behalf, in spite of the Pasuk "Sonei Matanos Yichyeh", which refers to a person who says as much (but it cannot be assumes that everyone abides by it).

(d)The Sevara by Matanah will not apply to what one acquires from Hefker where neither the Meshale'ach nor the Sheli'ach are aware of the transaction. Consequently, when it come to Matanah, Chatzer can only be because of Yad.

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