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BAVA KAMA 47 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for this Daf for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.

1)

(a)If we knew for sure that the pregnant cow killed the ox before the calf was born, Rava would permit claiming the full Chatzi Nezek from the body of the calf. Why is that?

(b)What does he say about claiming the egg inside a Tam chicken that damaged?

1)

(a)If we knew for sure that the pregnant cow killed the ox before the calf was born, Rava would permit claiming the full Chatzi Nezek from the body of the calf - because Rava holds that a fetus is considered part of its mother (see Tosfos DH 'Mai Ta'ama').

(b)He does not however, permit claiming the egg inside a Tam chicken that damaged - because the egg inside a chicken is considered a separate entity (which cannot be held responsible for damage caused by its 'mother'.

2)

(a)What does Rava mean when he says that one does not assess the value of the cow on its own and the calf on its own? To which section of the Mishnah is he referring?

(b)What do an Eved whose hand someone severed and a field from which someone cut down a row of trees or ate a row of vegetables, have in common?

(c)What is the reason for all of these?

(d)What did Rava reply, when Rav Acha Brei d'Rava asked him why we need to have pity on the Mazik? If his Din is to pay the full value of the cow, then let him pay?

2)

(a)When Rava says that one does not assess the value of the cow on its own and the calf on its own, he is referring to - the Reisha of the Mishnah, where the Mazik struck the cow, causing it to miscarry. What he means is - that rather than reckoning the two as separate entities, one assesses the loss by evaluating the pregnant cow with the fetus and without the fetus, and considering the difference as the damage.

(b)What an Eved whose hand someone severed and a field from which someone cut down a row of trees or ate a row of vegetables, have in common is - that they too, are assessed in the same way: the difference between the Eved with his hand and the Eved without it (rather than the amount one would accept to have the hand of one's Eved cut off), and the difference between the field with the row of vegetables and the field without it.

(c)The reason for all of these is - because it would be unfair to the Mazik to make him pay such a high price (as will be explained).

(d)When Rav Acha Brei d'Rava asked Rav Ashi why we have pity on the Mazik, and that if his Din is to pay the full value of the cow and the calf, then let him pay - he replied that when all's said and done, it was not a cow and a calf that his ox killed, but a pregnant cow (so that is what he has to pay for. Note, that the other two cases will be explained later in the Masechta.

3)

(a)Based on the previous Halachah, we take for granted that if an ox kills a fattened, pregnant cow (assuming that the cow and the fetus belonged to different owners), when they assess the cow together with the calf, the owner of the calf will not benefit from the fact that the cow was fattened (only the owner of the cow). Why is that?

(b)If the cow was not fattened but naturally fat (due to its pregnancy), Rav Papa rules that here too, it is the owner of the cow who stands to gain from the cow's extra bulk and not the owner of the calf (see Tosfos DH 'Nafcha'). What does Rav Acha Brei d'Rav Ika say?

(c)What is the Halachah?

3)

(a)Based on the previous Halachah, we take for granted that if an ox kills a fattened, pregnant cow, assuming that the cow and the fetus belonged to different owners, when Beis-Din assess the cow together with the calf, the owner of the calf will not benefit from the fact that the cow was fattened (only the owner of the cow) - because the fetus did not add to the intrinsic weight of the cow.

(b)If the cow was not fattened but naturally fat (due to its pregnancy), Rav Papa rules that here too, it is the owner of the cow who stands to gain from the cow's extra bulk, and not the owner of the calf (see Tosfos DH 'Nafcha'). Rav Acha Brei d'Rav Ika says - Cholkin (since the cow's fatness is due to the calf).

(c)The Halachah is - Cholkin.

4)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses a case where Reuven brings his pots or his fruit into Shimon's Chatzer without permission. What will be the Din if Shimon's ox ...

1. ... smashes the pots or eats the fruit?

2. ... trips over either of them and injures itself?

(b)What will be the Din Reuven brought them in with permission?

(c)What does the Tana say in a case where Reuven brings his ox into Shimon's Chatzer without permission, and ...

1. ... Shimon's ox gores it or if his dog bites it?

2. ... it gores Shimon's ox?

3. ... it falls into a pit and dirties the water in it ...

4. ... or kills the owner's father or son who is in it?

4)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses a case where Reuven brings his pots (or his fruit) into Shimon's Chatzer without permission. If Shimon's ox ...

1. ... smashes the pots or eats the fruit - he is Patur.

2. ... trips over either of them and injures itself - Reuven is liable.

(b)If he brought them in with permission however, and Shimon's ox smashes the pots or his animal eats the fruit - he is Chayav.

(c)If Reuven brings his ox into Shimon's Chatzer without permission, and ...

1. ... Shimon's ox gores it or if his dog bites it - Shimon is Patur.

2. ... it gores Shimon's ox - Reuven is Chayav.

3. ... it falls into a pit and dirties the water in it - Reuven is Chayav.

4. ... it falls into a pit and kills the owner's father or son who happens to be in the pit at the time - he will be Chayav to pay Kofer (though we will need to understand why [seeing as we are currently discussing a Tam]).

5)

(a)In a case where Reuven brings his ox into Shimon's Chatzer with permission and Shimon's ox gores it, what does the Tana Kama rule?

(b)What does Rebbi rule say?

5)

(a)In a case where Reuven brings his ox into Shimon's Chatzer with permission and Shimon's ox gores it, the Tana Kama rules that Shimon is Chayav.

(b)According to Rebbi - Shimon is not Chayav, unless he specifically accepted responsibility for Reuven's ox.

47b----------------------------------------47b

6)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that if a potter brings his pots into someone's Chatzer without permission, he is liable for damages that the animals belonging to the owner sustained on their account. What can we extrapolate from there? What would the Din have been had he received permission?

(b)Why do we assume that this goes like Rebbi, who says in the Seifa that Stam, the owner of the Chatzer does not accept responsibility for damages done to Shimon's ox?

(c)How does this clash with the Seifa 've'Im Hichnis bi'Reshus, Ba'al Chatzer Chayav'.

(d)What additional Kashya do we ask from the Seifa 'Rebbi Omer, b'Chulan Eino Chayav ... '?

6)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that if a potter brings his pots into someone's Chatzer without permission, he is liable for damages that the animals belonging to the owner sustained on their account, implying that - had he received permission to enter, he would be Patur.

(b)We think that this goes like Rebbi, who says in the Seifa that Stam, the owner of the Chatzer does not accept responsibility for damages done to Shimon's ox is - because we assume that, according to the Rabanan, just as the owner accepts responsibility Stam for damages that his ox does to the pots, so too, does the potter accept responsibility Stam for the damages that his pots do to the ox.

(c)This clashes with the Seifa 've'Im Hichnis bi'Reshus, Ba'al Chatzer Chayav' - meaning that Stam, the owner of the Chatzer does accept responsibility for damages done to the pots (or to the ox), like the Rabanan of Rebbi.

(d)We also ask from the Seifa 'Rebbi Omer b'Chulan Eino Chayav ... ' - because then the Reisha and the Seifa will go like Rebbi, and the Metzi'asa, like the Rabanan.

7)

(a)What does Rebbi Zeira mean when he says 'Tavra, Mi she'Shanah Zu Lo Shanah Zu'?

(b)How does Rava reconcile the Rabanan in the Reisha with the Rabanan in the Metzi'asa?

7)

(a)When Rebbi Zeira says 'Tavra, Mi she'Shanah Zu Lo Shanah Zu', he means - that the Reisha and the Metzi'asa are two opinions in the Rabanan. According to the Reisha, the Rabanan hold like Rebbi (in the Seifa), whereas according to the Metzi'asa, they argue with him.

(b)According to Rava - the Rabanan in the Metzi'asa argue with Rebbi over whether, when the owner of the Chatzer said 'Come in!', he automatically accepts responsibility for damages done to his pots or animals even by the wind (the Rabanan), or not (Rebbi). But in the Reisha, they will agree with Rebbi that the potter or the owner of the animal does not accept responsibility Stam for damages that his animals do to the property of the owner of the Chatzer, seeing as he did not say anything.

8)

(a)In the opening case in the Mishnah, the Tana obligates Reuven (the owner of the fruit) to pay, should the ox belonging to the owner of the courtyard (Shimon) trip over them. What does Rav comment on this? What does he say the Din will be if the ox eats the fruit and become ill from it?

(b)Due to the following Beraisa, Rav Asi reacted strongly to Rav's statement. What did he say?

(c)What does the Beraisa say about someone who places poison in front of his friend's animal, and the animal eats it and dies?

8)

(a)In the opening case in the Mishnah, the Tana obligates Reuven (the owner of the fruit) to pay, should the ox belonging to the owner of the courtyard (Shimon) trip over them. Rav comments on this, that if the oxen would have eaten the fruit and become ill from it - he would have been Patur, because it had the option not to eat.

(b)Due to the following Beraisa, Rav Asi - declared that Rav must have been asleep when he said that.

(c)The Beraisa says that if someone places poison in front of his friend's animal, and the animal eats it and dies - he is Patur at the hand of Beis-Din, but Chayav at the Hand of Hash-m.

9)

(a)What reason do we initially ascribe to the Tana restricting the case to where he gave the animal poison?

(b)How will this explain Rav Asi's reaction?

(c)How does Rav resolve this Kashya? Why, according to him, does the Tana refer specifically to poison?

9)

(a)The reason we initially ascribe to the Tana restricting the case to where he gave the animal poison is - because animals do not normally eat poison, but had he placed fruit, he would even have been Chayav at the hand of Beis-Din.

(b)This explains Rav Asi's reaction - because this clearly refutes Rav's statement, since it illustrates that the Tana does not hold of the Sevara that it had the option not to eat.

(c)According to Rav, the Tana refers specifically to poison - t teach us that even though animals do not usually eat poison, he is nevertheless Chayav at the Hand of Hash-m (but the same would apply if it would have eaten fruit).

10)

(a)Rav Asi queries Rav from another Beraisa. What does the Tana say with regard to a woman who entered someone's house without permission to grind wheat, if the owner's animal ...

1. ... ate her wheat?

2. ... sustained damages due to the wheat?

(b)Rav Asi understood, like he did above with regard to our Mishnah, that 'Huzkah' refers to damages through eating. Why did he persist in asking here, even though we already answered above that it means by tripping over it?

(c)What does yet another Beraisa rule in a case where Reuven took his ox into Shimon's Chatzer and it ate wheat, contracted diarrhea and died, assuming that he brought in the ox ...

1. ... without permission?

2. ... with permission?

(d)Rav Asi asked why, according to Rav, the Tana does not exempt the owner of the Chatzer on the grounds that the ox had the option of not eating. What did Rava reply?

10)

(a)Rav Asi queries Rav from another Beraisa, where the Tana rules that if a woman entered someone's house without permission to grind wheat, and the owner's animal ...

1. ... ate her wheat - he is Patur from paying

2. ... sustained damages due to the wheat - the woman is Chayav.

(b)Rav Asi understood, like he did above with regard to our Mishnah, that 'Huzkah' refers to damages through eating. He nevertheless persisted in asking here, even though we already answered above that it means by tripping over it - because here the Tana says 'Im Huzkah' (implying that it was damaged through the eating mentioned by the Tana earlier ('ve'Achlasan Behemto shel Ba'al ha'Bayis'), whereas earlier, he added the word 'Huzkah Bahen', which could well refer to tripping over them.

(c)Yet another Beraisa rules that, if Reuven took his ox into Shimon's Chatzer and it ate wheat, contracted diarrhea and died, assuming that he brought in the ox ...

1. ... without permission - Shimon is Patur.

2. ... with permission - he is Chayav.

(d)Rav Asi asked why, according to Rav, the Tana does not exempt the owner of the Chatzer on the grounds that the ox had the option of not eating. Rava replied - that since we are speaking here when the owner permitted him to enter, that incorporates guarding the ox against all contingencies, even against it choking (a Sevara which does not apply in a case when he entered without permission).

11)

(a)We ask, in a case where Shimon accepts responsibility for the damages done to Reuven's ox, to what extent he accepts it. What exactly is the She'eilah?

(b)How is this She'eilah relevant according to ...

1. ... Rebbi?

2. ... the Rabanan?

11)

(a)We ask, in a case where Shimon accepts responsibility for the damages done to Reuven's ox, to what extent he accepts it - whether it even incorporates damages that it sustains via a third party.

(b)This She'eilah is relevant according to ...

1. ... Rebbi - if he specifically accepted responsibility.

2. ... the Rabanan - even Stama (if he did not).

12)

(a)And we try to resolve it from a Beraisa quoted by Rav Yehudah bar Simon. What does the Tana of Nizakin d'Bei Karna there say in a case where Reuven brought his fruit into Shimon's Chatzer, and a third person's ox ate them, assuming that he entered ...

1. ... without permission?

2. ... with permission?

(b)How do we establish 'Patur' and 'Chayav' in the Beraisa, in an attempt to resolve our She'eilah?

(c)On what grounds do we object to the counter suggestion (that Chayav and Patur refer to the owner of the ox that did the damage).

12)

(a)And we try to resolve it from a Beraisa quoted by Rav Yehudah bar Simon. The Tana of Nizakin d'Bei Karna says there in a case where Reuven brought his fruit into Shimon's Chatzer, and a third person's ox ate them, assuming that he entered ...

1. ... without permission - that he is Patur.

2. ... with permission - that he is Chayav.

(b)In an attempt to resolve our She'eilah, we establish 'Patur' and 'Chayav' in the Beraisa - with regard to the owner of the Chatzer (in which case we see that the responsibility extends even to a third party too.

(c)We object to the counter suggestion (that Chayav and Patur refer to the owner of the ox that did the damage) - on the grounds that what is then the significance of 'Reshus' (why should 'she'Lo bi'Reshus' exempt him from being Chayav).

13)

(a)Nevertheless, we accept the latter suggestion. How do we then explain ''Reshus' and 'she'Lo bi'Reshus' in the Beraisa?

(b)How do we reconcile this with the Halachah 'Chatzar ha'Shutfin Patur bah Al ha'Shein v'Al ha'Regel'?

(c)And what do we mean when we say 'she'Lo bi'Reshus, Havya leih Shein bi'Reshus ha'Rabim'? What sort of Reshus ha'Rabim is this?

13)

(a)Nevertheless, we accept it, and the significance of 'Reshus' in the Beraisa is - that it is then a case of Shen bi'Reshus ha'Nizak ([i.e. 'shel Shutfin'] rendering the owner of the ox Chayav), whereas 'she'Lo bi'Reshus' renders it a case of Shen bi'Reshus ha'Rabim (in which case he will be Patur).

(b)We reconcile this with the Halachah 'Chatzar ha'Shutfin Patur bah Al ha'Shen v'Al ha'Regel' - by establishing that case with regard to damages performed by one of the Shutfim to the other, and our case with regard to damages that a third party did to one of them.

(c)When we say 'she'Lo bi'Reshus, Havya leih Shen bi'Reshus ha'Rabim', what we really mean is - a Reshus that is not the Reshus of the Nizak, since that is the criterion as regards Shen.

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