BERACHOS 26 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.
QUESTION: The Shacharis prayer is called Shacharis because it is the morning ("Shachar") prayer, and it corresponds to the morning Tamid offering. The nighttime prayer, Arvis (or Ma'ariv) is so named because it is said at night (Erev). Why, though, is the afternoon prayer called "Minchah"?
(a) TOSFOS in Pesachim (107a, DH Samuch) explains that the afternoon Tamid was accompanied by a Minchah (flour) offering, and therefore the prayer that corresponds to the afternoon Tamid is called Minchah (as opposed to Arvis, which corresponds only to the offering of the Tamid's limbs and not to the offering of a Minchah). Even though the morning Tamid was also accompanied by a Minchah offering, a more general name can be used for the morning prayer ("Shacharis"). The word that is used to refer to the afternoon ("Erev"), though, is already being used to refer to the nighttime prayer, Arvis.
(b) TOSFOS answers further that the Gemara (Berachos 6b) says that Minchah is a special prayer, because at that time of day Hash-m answered Eliyahu, and the idolaters were proven wrong. Perhaps Eliyahu was bringing a Minchah offering at the time, and Hash-m answered his prayers because it was a propitious time of Divine favor. We therefore call the afternoon prayer, "The prayer of the Minchah (of Eliyahu)," to remind ourselves that it is prayed during a time of Divine favor.
The VILNA GA'ON in Shenos Eliyahu adds that we find that a person is allowed to recite Minchah until the very end of the day. However, if the afternoon prayer was instituted to correspond to the afternoon Korban Tamid, as the Gemara (26b) states, and that Korban was never slaughtered later than 8 1/2 hours into the day, then why should a person be allowed to recite Minchah after the time of the slaughtering of the Tamid?
Rather, the Vilna Ga'on explains, the Minchah prayer was instituted to correspond not to the offering of the Korban Tamid, but to the Minchah offering that accompanied the Korban Tamid, which could be brought until the very end of the day (sunset according to the Rabanan, Plag ha'Minchah according to Rebbi Yehudah). He explains why the time for the afternoon prayer was determined by the Minchah offering and the time for the morning prayer was not. The Korban and all of its associated offerings comprise one single entity called the Korban Tamid. In the morning, the time for prayer is determined by the sacrificing of the first part of that entity, which is the Korban itself, while in the afternoon, the time for prayer lasts until the final part of the Korban, which is the Minchah offering, is offered.
(c) The RAMBAM (Perush ha'Mishnayos) says that the late afternoon is called "Minchah" in Hebrew, and therefore the afternoon prayer has the same name. The AVUDRAHAM adds that the Torah refers to the late afternoon as "Ru'ach ha'Yom" (Bereishis 3:8), which the Targum translates as "l'Menach Yoma," which means the time at which the sun can be seen setting. Hence, the prayer said at that time is called Minchah.
2) HALACHAH: ONE WHO FORGETS "YA'ALEH V'YAVO"
QUESTION: The Gemara teaches that one who misses Shacharis should recite two Shemoneh Esrehs at Minchah. Similarly, one who misses Minchah or Ma'ariv should say the following prayer twice.
What is the Halachah if a person forgot to say Ya'aleh v'Yavo during Minchah on Rosh Chodesh, and he did not remember until nighttime, after Rosh Chodesh? Should he say Ma'ariv that night twice in order to make up for the Shemoneh Esreh that he "lost" (by not saying Ya'aleh v'Yavo during Minchah), or should he not recite an extra Shemoneh Esreh, as he is not going to gain anything from it? He will not gain the blessings of Shemoneh Esreh, because he already said them at Minchah, and he will not gain Ya'aleh v'Yavo, because he does not recite it the night after Rosh Chodesh!
ANSWERS: TOSFOS (DH Ta'ah) cites two opinions in the Rishonim.
(a) RABEINU YEHUDAH says that he should not recite another Shemoneh Esreh at night to make up for omitting Ya'aleh v'Yavo in Minchah of the previous day, because he gains nothing by doing so.
(b) The RIF argues that he should recite a second Shemoneh Esreh at Ma'ariv, even though he does not recite Ya'aleh v'Yavo in it.
It appears that the two opinions argue about the reason why a person must repeat Shemoneh Esreh altogether when he misses Ya'aleh v'Yavo on Rosh Chodesh. Must he repeat Shemoneh Esreh because it lacked Ya'aleh v'Yavo, and he must compensate for that, or must he repeat it because his entire Shemoneh Esreh is considered lacking, and therefore he must compensate for the entire Shemoneh Esreh?
Rabeinu Yehudah maintains that his entire Shemoneh Esreh is valid, but it is lacking Ya'aleh v'Yavo, and therefore he must recite a second Shemoneh Esreh to make up for the missing Ya'aleh v'Yavo. Consequently, if the recitation of another Shemoneh Esreh will not give him the Ya'aleh v'Yavo which he missed, there is no reason for him to repeat the Shemoneh Esreh.
The Rif, on the other hand, maintains that his entire Shemoneh Esreh is not a valid Tefilah if he omitted Ya'aleh v'Yavo, and therefore he must repeat it, even if he will not gain Ya'aleh v'Yavo by repeating it.
(4:2) says that the answer to this question remains in doubt. Therefore, he concludes that one should recite a second Shemoneh Esreh at Ma'ariv, but he should intend it as a Tefilas Nedavah. (Since he is saying a Tefilas Nedavah due to a doubt as to whether he is actually obligated to recite another Shemoneh Esreh, he does not have to add a new request in his Tefilah, which one is normally required to do when reciting a Tefilas Nedavah). The MISHNAH BERURAH
(OC 108:36) adds that if the night after Rosh Chodesh is a Shabbos or Yom Tov, one should not
repeat Shemoneh Esreh, since a Tefilas Nedavah is not said on those days (see Insights to Berachos 21:2