BERACHOS 59 - dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's father in memory of his aunt, Malka Gitel bas Reb Yakov Mordechai (Malvina Marmorstein), who took him into her home and raised him like her own child after the Holocaust. Her Yahrzeit is 20 Nisan.

[59a - 53 lines; 59b - 53 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 59b [line 10]:

"Baruch Oseh Bereishis" ברוך עושה בראשית

(a) This is the Girsa of the Rambam and the Rif, and the way the Berachah appears in our Mishnah. According to these Rishonim, the Berachah should appear this way, and not "Ma'aseh" Bereishis, throughout the entire Sugya.

(b) However, the Girsa of the Rosh (#13), the Tur (#227), and the Shulchan Aruch (#228) is "Oseh Ma'aseh Bereishis." Accordingly, the Girsa in the Mishnah and the entire Sugya should be "Oseh Ma'aseh Bereishis."


1)[line 1]טרפא דטריףTARFA D'TARIF- a flattened piece of metal

2)[line 6]אין קטיגור נעשה סניגורEIN KATEIGOR NA'ASEH SANEIGOR- a prosecutor cannot become a defense attorney

3)[line 10]גוהאGUHA- (a) an earthquake (RASHI); (b) a roll of thunder or thunderclap (RASHBA, citing the ARUCH)

4)[line 11]אובא טמיאUVA TAMAYA- a person who does divination with bones

5)[line 11]גנח גוהאGANACH GUHA- there was an earthquake

6)[line 12]רמא ליה קלאRAMA LEI KALA- he (the diviner) called to him (Rav Katina) loudly

7)[line 15]כדיבKADIV- a liar

8)[line 17]סופק כפיוSOFEIK KAPAV- claps his hands

9)[line 19]"הידד כדורכים יענה""HEIDAD K'DORCHIM YA'ANEH"- "He will give a shout, as they that tread grapes" (Yirmeyahu 25:30).

10)[line 22]ענני בגלגלאANANEI BA'GALGELA- clouds that rub together in the heavenly sphere

11)[line 25]ברקא תקיפאBARKA TEKIFA- powerful lightning

12)[line 25]גזיזי דברזאGEZIZEI D'VARZA- pieces of hail

13)[line 25]חלחולי מחלחליCHALCHULEI MECHALCHELEI- are hollow

14)[line 26]זיקאZIKA- wind

15)[line 26]פום דניPUM DANEI- the tops of barrels

16)[line 27]מנהמי ענניMENAHAMEI ANANEI- the clouds make noise

17)[line 28]זעפאZAIFA- a stormy wind; hurricane; tornado

18)[line 32]ברקאBARKA- lightning

19)[line 32]ברקא ירוקתאBARKA YERUKTA- and yellow lightning

20)[line 37]כד מפתח בביKAD MAFTACH BAVEI- when you open your door

21)[line 37]בר חמראBAR CHAMARA- donkey-driver

22)[line 37]מוך שקיך וגניMOCH SAKICH V'GANEI- fold your grain-sacks under you and sleep on them (i.e. there is no need to transport grain from place to place; there will be abundant produce everywhere)

23)[line 38]קטר בעיבאKATAR B'EIVA- [the sky] is covered with one thick cloud

24)[line 38]קטר בענניKATAR B'ANANEI- [the sky] is covered with thin clouds

25)[line 39]לפשוט עקמומית שבלבLIFSHOT AKMUMIS SHEBA'LEV- to straighten the crookedness of the heart

26)[line 50]רקיע בטהרתהRAKI'A B'TAHARASAH- a pristine, clear sky

27)[line 51]אסתנאISTENA- the north wind

28)[last line]"אלביש שמים קַדְרוּת...""ALBISH SHAMAYIM KADRUS..."- "I shall clothe the heavens in blackness..." (Yeshayah 50:3).


29)[line 1]חמה בתקופתהCHAMAH B'TEKUFASAH- (a) when the sun comes back to the same point (in relation to the stars and constellations) where it was placed in the Raki'a, on the night before Yom Revi'i (at the time of the day and week that it was placed during the week of creation). This happens once every 28 years. With regard to this Berachah, we follow the opinion that the world was created in Nisan (see Rosh Hashanah 10b-11a), and the Berachah is recited on the following morning at sunrise (RASHI); (b) when the sun and stars are not visible for at least three consecutive days during the winter, this Berachah is recited upon their reemergence (ARUCH, citing the Gemara Yerushalmi, Berachos 9:3)

30)[line 1]לבנה בגבורתהLEVANAH B'GEVURASAH- (a) when the moon can be seen at the beginning of a month in Mazal Taleh (the constellation Aries) and it is crossing the ecliptic (RAMBAM); (b) According to the Girsa of the Rif and Rosh (#13), LEVANAH B'TAHARASAH, which apparently means that there is a full moon and the night sky is very bright. It seems, according to the Rif and Rosh, that Levanah b'Taharasah, Kochavim b'Mishmerosam, and Mazalos b'Itam are all descriptions of one event and a Berachah is recited only when all of these conditions are met (M. KORNFELD).

31)[line 2]כוכבים במסילותםKOCHAVIM B'MESILOSAM- (a) and when one of the planets crosses the ecliptic at the point where Mazal Taleh begins (RAMBAM); (b) The Girsa of the Rif and Rosh (ibid.) is KOCHAVIM B'MISHMEROSAM, apparently when the sky is bright and a vast number of stars can be seen (M. KORNFELD)

32)[line 2]מזלות כסדרןMAZALOS K'SIDRAN- (a) when Mazal Taleh begins to rise on the eastern horizon (RAMBAM); (b) the Girsa of the Rif and Rosh (ibid.) is MAZALOS B'ITAM, probably meaning that the sky is lucid and bright, and it is possible to see the constellations of that night very clearly.

33)[line 4]מחזורMACHZOR- cycle

34)[line 5]שבתאיSHABTAI- Saturn (see Rashi)

35)[line 5]באורתא דתלת נגהי ארבעB'URTA D'TLAS NAGHEI ARBA- the night after the third day, which is the evening of the fourth day, i.e. Tuesday night

36)[line 9]אגשרא דבבלA'GISHRA D'VAVEL- to the ferry that crossed the Euphrates at a certain place in Bavel, which is down river from Ihi Dekira. It seems that this is called Gishra d'Vei Peras in Kidushin 71b.

37)[line 13]שביסתנאSHAVISTENA- a place on the Tigris River

38)[line 14]חדין וקליןCHADIN V'KALIN- sharp and light

39)[line 15]מימיו פרין ורביןMEIMAV PARIN V'RAVIN- its waters increase and multiply; that is, although the waters of all other rivers also increase and multiply, nevertheless the name Pras is more appropriate to the Euphrates because (a) it is outstanding among rivers and its waters increase even more than those of other rivers. (b) Alternatively, it is called Pras since it causes the waters of all the other rivers in the world to increase (TOSFOS to Bechoros 55b DH Mesaye'a)

40)[line 17]גיחוריGICHORI- (O.F. ros) they have a reddish complexion

41)[line 18]דניידי עינייהוD'NAIDEI EINAIHU- that their eyes move erratically

42)[line 22]משיצא חתן לקראת כלהMISHE'YETZEI CHASAN LIKRAS KALAH- when so much rain falls that a drop that falls into a puddle causes a drop in the puddle to splash upward