[40a - 57 lines; 40b - 52 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 40b [line 31]:
The words "d'Sanya Lo Avarti" דתניא לא עברתי
should be "d'Snan Lo Avarti" דתנן לא עברתי
This is the Girsa of the Rosh and Dikdukei Sofrim #400. The Gemara is more likely to bring a proof from a Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 5:11) than from a Beraisa in the Sifri if they are exactly the same. See the Tzelach who suggests a beautiful approach to explain the Girsa of "d'Sanya."
 Tosfos 40b DH Amar Abaye ד"ה אמר אביי:
The words "Y"M (Yesh Mefarshim) d'Mistabra Beraisa Kavasei" יש מפרשים דמסתברא ברייתא כוותיה
should be "Y"M (Yesh Mefarshim) d'Halachah k'Rav, d'Mistabra u'Veraisa Kavasei" יש מפרשים דהלכה כרב דמסתברא וברייתא כוותיה
This is the correct Girsa, based upon the Rosh at the end of 6:23.
 Tosfos ibid:
"u'Me'ein Sheva d'Matzli" ומעין שבע דמציל
Before these words it is necessary to add another answer to the question about the first Berachah of Shemoneh Esreh, namely "Iy Nami, ha'Keil ha'Kadosh Hu k'Malchus" אי נמי הקל הקדש הוא כמלכות — "Alternatively, ha'Keil ha'Kadosh is equivalent to Malchus." (This seems necessary based upon the words of the Rosh ibid.)
1)[line 2]לפתןLIFTAN- relish
2)[line 4]גביל לתוריGAVIL L'TOREI!- Mix [the coarse bran] for the cattle!
3)[line 8]שנאמר "ונתתי עשב בשדך לבהמתך" והדר "ואכלת ושבעת"SHE'NE'EMAR "V'NASATI ESEV B'SADCHA LI'VHEMTECHA" V'HADAR "V'ACHALTA V'SAVATA"- the previous verse states, "v'Asafta Deganecha v'Siroshcha v'Yitzharecha"; although the grain, wine, and oil are already gathered, they may be eaten only after the grass is given to one's animals
4)[line 13]בצע להדיאVATZA L'HEDYA- he immediately broke the bread (without waiting for salt or relish)
5)[line 15]לית דין צריך בששLEIS DEIN TZARICH BASHESH- this [bread] does not need to wait [until salt or relish is brought] (it is quite tasty by itself)
6)[line 16]כליםKALIM- completely finish [coming out]
7)[line 17]עפר תיחוחAFAR TICHO'ACH- loose, fine dirt
8a)[line 19]מדרוןMADRON- slope
b)[line 27]אסכרהASKERA- (O.F. bon malant) quinsy, a severe development of heat, pain, redness and swelling in the throat
9)[line 27]המקפה אכילתו במיםHA'MAKPEH ACHILASO B'MAYIM- lit. one who causes his food to float in water; i.e., one who drinks a lot of water after he eats
10)[line 29]קיתון לפתKISON L'FAS- a flask [of water] per loaf of bread
11)[line 32]קשה לריח הפהKASHEH L'REI'ACH HA'PEH- it produces bad breath
12)[line 33]חרדלCHARDAL- mustard
13)[line 35]חולשא דלבאCHULSHA D'LIBA- faintness of the heart
14a)[line 38]מפרין ומרביןMAFRIN U'MARBIN- cause people to have children
b)[line 38]מבריןMAVRIN- revive, make healthy
15)[line 39]קצחKETZACH- (a) (O.F. neele) with fennel flower, a sweet-smelling herb used for flavoring food (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) black cumin (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
16)[line 40]הישן למזרח גרנוHA'YASHEN L'MIZRACH GORNO- one who sleeps to the east of his threshing floor [of Ketzach]
17)[line 41]מדבקא ליהMEDABKA LEI- she would stick some Ketzach to the dough (in order for the flavor of the bread to be enhanced)
18)[line 42]מקלפא ליהMEKALFA LEI- peel it off (so that he would not be adversely affected by the smell)
19)[line 45]מעין ברכותיוME'EIN BIRCHOSAV- it own type of blessings, e.g. the prayers for Shabbos on Shabbos, for Yom Tov on Yom Tov, etc.
20)[line 52]מביא ואינו קוראMEVI V'EINO KOREI (BIKURIM)
21)[last line]איתיה לגווזאISEI L'GAVZA- the trunk (or stem) remains
22)[line 21]בנימין רעיאBINYAMIN RAIYA- Binyamin, the shepherd
23)[line 22]בריך מריה דהאי פיתאBERICH MAREI D'HAI PITA- Blessed be the Master of this bread
24)[line 27]פרשת סוטהPARSHAS SOTAH
25)[line 27]וידוי מעשרVIDUY MA'ASER
(a)See Background to Berachos 35:23.
(b)The Torah requires that at two times during the seven-year Shemitah cycle the owner of a field must recite Viduy Ma'aser, as is learned from Devarim 26:12-13.
(c)In the afternoon of Erev Pesach in the fourth and seventh years, the owner first performs Bi'ur, giving all remaining Terumah and Terumas Ma'aser to Kohanim, Ma'aser Rishon to Leviyim, and Ma'aser Ani to the poor. All remaining Ma'aser Sheni, Kerem Reva'i, Pidyonos of Ma'aser Sheni and Kerem Reva'i (coins on which Ma'aser Sheni and Kerem Rava'i were redeemed), and Bikurim must be destroyed wherever they are.
(d)He then recites the Viduy Ma'aser, declaring that he has set aside all of the required tithes and gifts, and that he kept all the Mitzvos with regard to them. The declaration is found in Devarim 26:13-15, and may be recited in any language that the owner understands. According to the MISHNAH (Ma'aser Sheni 5:6), RASHI (Sanhedrin 11b) and TOSFOS (Rosh Hashanah 4a DH u'Ma'asros), this declaration is stated in the afternoon of Erev Pesach. According to the RAMBAM, (Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 11:1-3), it is stated in the afternoon of the last day of Pesach.
(e)Ezra ha'Sofer fined the Leviyim of his time who did not come with him back to Eretz Yisrael and decreed that from then on Ma'aser Rishon shall be given to the Kohanim (Ezra 8:15; Yevamos 86b). As a result of this, Yochanan Kohen Gadol annulled the recitation of the Viduy Ma'aser since it includes the words "v'Gam Nesativ La'Levi," - "and I have also given [the Ma'aser Rishon] to the Levi," which would not be true. Apparently, the fine of Ezra had not become the common practice until the time of Yochanan Kohen Gadol (as in TOSFOS to Yevamos 86b DH Mipnei).
26)[line 33]הנובלותHA'NOVLOS- fruit that was scorched by the sun or dates that were blown off by the wind
27)[line 34]הגובאיHA'GOVAI- kosher grasshoppers or locusts
28)[line 37]הפת שעפשהHA'PAS SHE'IPSHAH- bread that became moldy
29)[line 37]היין שהקריםHA'YAYIN SHE'HIKRIM- wine that became slimy (e.g. the surface solidifies) from contamination (O.F. boter)
30)[line 38]התבשיל שעבר צורתוHA'TAVSHIL SHE'AVAR TZURASO- cooked food that spoiled
31)[line 38]הזמיתHA'ZAMIS- (a) (O.F. salmuire) brine (RASHI); (b) soup (ARUCH); (c) foam that collects at the top of a pot of cooked food (RAV HAI GAON); (d) salt water (TUR)
32)[line 38]כמהין ופטריותKEMEHIM, PITRIYOS- types of boletes, such as mushrooms, morels and truffles
33)[line 41]מירבא רבו מארעאMIRBA RAVU ME'AR'A- they grow from the ground
34)[line 41]מינקי לא ינקי מארעאMINKEI LO YANKEI ME'AR'A- they do not take their nourishment from the ground
35)[line 42]בושלי כמראBUSHLEI CHAMRA- fruit that was scorched by the sun
36)[line 42]תמרי דזיקאTAMREI D'ZIKA- dates that were blown off by the wind
37)[line 46]נובלות תמרהNOVLOS TEMARA- Novlos (see above, #26) that are specifically dates
(a)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" — "What is this?").
(b)Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
39)[line 46]שיתיןSHISIN- a kind of wild (BACH #2) or white (GRA #1) inferior fig
40)[line 46]רימיןRIMIN- the Gemara identifies Rimin with "Kandei." However, the Girsa in the Paris manuscript (see DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #20) is Kinarei, a fruit that grows on a type of thorny tree or bush
41)[line 46]העוזרדיןHA'UZRADIN- (a) (O.F. cormes) sorb-apples; (b) medlars, crab-apples
42)[line 47]בנות שוחBNOS SHU'ACH- a species of inferior white figs, the trees of which only produce fruits over a 3-year period
43)[line 47]בנות שקמהBNOS SHIKMAH- (a) sycomore fruits (fruits of the Egyptian fig, Ficus sycomorus); (b) figs that are similar to the fruit of the sycomore tree (not to be confused with the sycamore tree, Platanus occidentalis, a non-fruit-bearing tree of eastern and central North America)
44)[line 47]גופניןGUFNIN- (a) inferior, unripe grapes that stay on the vine until the winter, that are only used to make vinegar; (b) a type of fragrant herb that resembles dill
45)[line 47]נצפהNIZTPAH- the fruit of the caper-berry bush
(a)"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks of grain that inadvertently slipped out of the reaper's hand while he harvested them (by cutting them underneath with a sickle) or while he uprooted them (if he is not using a sickle) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #218; see Pe'ah 4:10 and Chidushei Anshei Shem).
(b)Such stalks may not be retrieved by the owner but must be left for the poor, as described in Vayikra (19:9-10), "v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not pick up the individual stalks that have fallen from the harvest... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger."
(c)If three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket and may be retrieved by the owner.
If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19). Also, one may not backtrack to harvest a row previously overlooked.
(a)The corner, or end, of the harvest of grain must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10).
(b)The requirement to leave Pe'ah for the poor applies to trees as well, as Chazal learn from the verse, "Ki Sachbot Zeisecha, Lo Sefa'er Acharecha; la'Ger, la'Yasom vela'Almanah Yiheyeh" - "When you beat your olive trees to shake off the fruit, do not remove all of its splendor; it (the amount that you leave as Pe'ah — Chulin 131b) shall be for the convert, the orphan and the widow" (Devarim 24:20).
(c)The Mishnah (Pe'ah 1:4) states that Pe'ah applies to any food that grows from the ground, is kept in one's possession (i.e. not Hefker), is harvested at one time and stored. Our Gemara explains which items are excluded by this rule.
49)[last line]עשאן גורןASA'AN GOREN- [the poor person] made a pile of produce
50)[last line]הוקבעו למעשרHUKBE'U L'MA'ASER