BERACHOS 17 (30 Av) - Today's study material has been dedicated by Al and Sophie Ziegler of Har Nof, Yerushalayim, in honor of the Yahrzeit of Al's father Bernard B. Ziegler, Binyamin Baruch ben Avraham (and Miryam), which occurs on 30 Menachem Av.

[17a - 54 lines; 17b - 53 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 17a [line 20]:

"Tirdof Nafshi v'Satzileini mi'Pega Ra... ha'Misragshos Lavo ba'Olam" תרדוף נפשי ותצילני מפגע רע ... המתרגשות לבא בעולם

The words "v'Satzileini mi'Pega Ra... ba'Olam" ותצילני מפגע רע ... בעולם are not found in Dikdukei Sofrim #40, Beis Nasan, and the Avudraham. They also are not found in our Sidurim.

[2] Gemara [line 42]:

The words "l'Osim Lo Ne'emar, Ela l'Oseihem*" לעושים לא נאמר אלא לעושיהם

should be "l'Lomdeihem Lo Ne'emar, Ela l'Oseihem*" ללומדיהם לא נאמר אלא לעושיהם

as noted in the margin. This is the Girsa of Dikdukei Sofrim #300 and of all the early printings of the Gemara. The wording of our Gemara is based on the emendation of the Maharshal. However, the Maharsha writes, like the Dikdukei Sofrim, that the Girsa should be "l'Lomdeihem," which seems to fit better with the context of the Derashah.

[3] Gemara 17b [line 6]:

The words "O Talmid she'Makdi'ach Tavshilo ba'Rabim" או תלמיד שמקדיח תבשילו ברבים

should be "O Talmid she'Yakdi'ach Tavshilo ba'Rabim Kegon Yeshu ha'Notzri" או תלמיד שיקדיח תבשילו ברבים כגון ישו הנוצרי

This is the Girsa of Dikdukei Sofrim #30, as found in the manuscripts and all of the early printings of the Gemara. (Here he is grouped along with the others who have no portion in Olam ha'Ba; see the first Mishnah of Perek Chelek in Sanhedrin.)


1)[line 1]פמליאPAMALYA- the Heavenly entourage (of angels)

2)[line 6]קרן אורהKEREN ORAH- a corner (position) of light

3)[line 11]שאור שבעיסהSE'OR SHEBA'ISAH- the sourdough in the dough, i.e. the evil inclination

4)[line 17]מרקMAREK- abolish

5)[line 19]תדוםSIDOM- shall be silent

6)[line 21]המתרגשותHA'MISRAGSHOS- that rush forth; that are stirring

7)[line 31]מרגלא בפומיהMARGELA B'FUMEI- (a) it was a common saying in the mouth of... ; (b) it was like a jewel in the mouth of...

8)[line 35]אינו מתגדר במלאכתיEINO MISGADER B'MELACHTI- he does not try to distinguish himself with my form of work (learning)

9)[line 36]ושמא תאמר אני מרבה והוא ממעיטV'SHEMA TOMAR, ANI MARBEH V'HU MAM'IT- and if you think that I can learn very much, whereas he would learn only a little bit (so that it is not worth his while to learn)

10)[line 37]ערום ביראהARUM B'YIR'AH- shrewd in [his ability to attain] fear [of Heaven]

11)[line 38]מענה רךMA'ANEH RACH- soft speech

12)[line 42]במניןB'MINYAN- (a) greater in age; (b) more respectful

13)[line 45]תחרותTACHARUS- competition

14)[line 46]מזיוMI'ZIV- from the splendor

15)[line 46]גדולה הבטחה שהבטיחן ...GEDOLAH HAVTACHAH SHE'HIVTICHAN …- It is not clear why this is discussed in our Gemara. Apparently, the Gemara is simply quoting (from here until the end of the Perek) numerous statements that deal with reward and punishment (in this world and the next), since we mentioned earlier what the Word to Come is like.

16)[line 47]"נשים שאננות קומנה ...""NASHIM SHA'ANANOS, KOMNAH ..."- "Rise up, tranquil women..." (Yeshayah 32:9)

17)[line 48]אקרויי בנייהוAKRUYEI BENAIHU- they exert themselves to make sure that their sons learn the verses of Tanach

18)[line 48]אתנויי גברייהוASNUYEI GAVRAIHU- they cause their husbands to learn Mishnah and Gemara

19)[line 48]נטריןNATRIN- they wait

20)[line 50]ירחיש רננותYARCHISH RENANOS- will vibrate/move with praises

21)[line 51]עפעפיך יישירו נגדךAFAPECHA YEISHIRU NEGDECHA- your eyelids will look directly in front of you, i.e. you will understand correctly the Torah that you learn

22)[line 51]כליותיך תעלוזנה מישריםCHILYOSECHA TA'ALOZNAH MEISHARIM- your kidneys will rejoice with statements of justice

23)[line 52]פעמיך ירוצוFE'AMECHA YARUTZU- your feet shall run

24)[line 52]עתיק יומיןATIK YOMIN- the Ancient of Days; i.e., the Creator

25)[line 53]"אלופינו מסבלים, [אין פרץ ואין יוצאת, ואין צוחה ברחבתינו.]""ALUFEINU MESUBALIM, [EIN PERETZ V'EIN YOTZEIS, V'EIN TZEVACHAH BI'RCHOVOSEINU.]"- "Our leaders are laden, [there is neither outburst, nor defection, nor outcry in our streets]" (Tehilim 144:14)


26)[line 1]סיעתנוSI'ATEINU- our following

27)[line 2]אחיתופלACHISOFEL

Achisofel was the advisor to King David who later aided Avshalom ben David in the revolt against his father (Shmuel II 15:12-17:23, Divrei ha'Yamim I 27:34). His advice was considered tantamount to receiving counsel from HaSh-m (Shmuel II 16:23). He is one of the four non-royal personages who have no Chelek la'Olam ha'Ba (no portion in the World to Come) due to his denial of the coming of Mashi'ach (the redeemer), which includes the fact that Mashi'ach will descend from David through Shlomo (RAMBAM Hilchos Teshuvah 3:6, Peirush ha'Mishnayos to Sanhedrin Perek Chelek, ha'Yesod Sheneim Asar). He intended that Avshalom should kill his father, after which he would have Avshalom convicted and killed for the very same sins that he caused Avshalom to transgress. At that point he intended to take the monarchy for himself (TIFERES YISRAEL to Sanhedrin 10:2:12).

28)[line 4]דואג האדומיDO'EG HA'ADOMI

Do'eg ha'Adomi was the minister to King Shaul who personally killed the Kohanim of the city of Nov (Shmuel I 21:8-22:18). He is considered the paradigm transgressor of the sin of Leshon ha'Ra, for which he has no Chelek l'Olam ha'Ba (TIFERES YISRAEL to Sanhedrin 10:2:12). When David was running away from King Shaul, Achimelech, the Kohen Gadol, aided David by providing him with bread and a sword, as recorded in Shmuel I 21:2-9. Do'eg ha'Adomi was a witness to his act of kindness, and related the incident to King Shaul. As a result, King Shaul charged Achimelech and all of the Kohanim of the city of Nov with treason and had them killed by Do'eg (ibid. 22:9-19).

29)[line 5]גחזיGECHAZI

Elisha ha'Navi was a great prophet and was well known as a worker of miracles. Unfortunately, his attendant Gechazi had poor character (Melachim II 4:12-5:27). The verses (ibid. 5:1-24) describe his greed. The Gemara reports that he engaged in practices of Avodah Zarah (Sotah 47a) and licentious behavior (Berachos 10b). He was disrespectful to Elisha, even though he was his teacher (Sanhedrin 100a), and he prevented the public from learning Torah (Sotah ibid.). Elisha tried to persuade him to repent (Sotah ibid. and Sanhedrin 107b) but to no avail. (Nevertheless, the Gemara in Bava Metzia 87a states that when Elisha finally gave up and sent him away, Elisha contracted an illness as a result of his action.) For his sins of Mevazeh Talmidei Chachamim (disgracing Torah scholars) and Machti Es ha'Rabim (causing the public to sin), he has no Chelek l'Olam ha'Ba (TIFERES YISRAEL to Sanhedrin 10:2:12).

30)[line 7]שמקדיח תבשילו ברביםSHE'MAKDI'ACH TAVSHILO BA'RABIM- who sins (lit. burns his food) in public (see Girsa Section #3)

31)[line 10]נזונין בזרועNIZONIN B'ZERO'A- are fed by force, i.e. by their merits (RASHI)

32)[line 14]הר חורבHAR CHOREV- Har Sinai, upon which the Torah was given

33)[line 16]חנינא בניCHANINA BNI- Chanina [ben Dosa], my son, Mishnaic sage of whom many supernatural stories are related in Maseches Berachos 33a-34b, 61b, and Maseches Ta'anis 24b-25a

34)[line 18]גובאי טפשאיGOVA'EI TIPSHA'EI- foolish inhabitants of Gobaya, a Babylonian district inhabited by the Giv'onim (otherwise know as the Nesinim, see Background to Sanhedrin 51:3)

35)[line 21]יקרא דאורייתאYEKARA D'ORAISA- the glory of the Torah (when everyone would gather together before Sukos and Pesach to learn the Halachos of the holidays)

36)[line 24]חייש ליוהראCHAYISH L'YUHARA- advises against doing certain acts which might be construed as haughtiness

37)[line 32]מוחלפת השיטהMUCHLEFES HA'SHITAH- the opinions have been mistakenly interchanged


38)[line 44]נושאי המטהNOS'EI HA'MITAH- the people who are carrying the bier upon which the corpse lies

39)[line 44]חלופיהןCHILUFEIHEN- and the people who are ready to replace the people carrying the bier

40)[line 47]שורהSHURAH

(a)While a person mourns for a close relative, it is a Mitzvah mid'Rabanan to comfort him by saying "ha'Makom Yenachem Eschem b'Soch She'ar Avelei Tziyon vi'Yerushalayim" - "HaSh-m should comfort you among the mourners of the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim," or "Tenuchamu Min ha'Shamayim" - "You will be comforted by HaSh-m." The mourners accept Tanchumin at the cemetery after the burial, and in the house of mourning for seven days afterwards (Rambam Hilchos Avel 13:2; Shulchan Aruch YD 376).

(b)At the cemetery after the burial, the people who came to the funeral stand in rows (Shuros) of not less than ten people and comfort the mourners before they return to the city. At first, the mourners stood still to the left of the comforters, and they passed in front of the mourners one by one, to offer their condolences (Rambam Hilchos Avel 13:1-2). Because of an unfortunate event described by the Gemara (Sanhedrin 19a), the custom was changed so that the people who comforted the mourners stood in a line and the mourners passed by them. The Gemara (ibid.) concludes that nowadays, either system is appropriate.