[4a - 39 lines; 4b - 45 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 4a [line 5]:
"she'Mufla'im b'Divreihem" שמופלאים בדבריהם
The Girsa in Sanhedrin 16b is:
"she'Mufla'in Ma'aseihen" שמופלאין מעשיהן
 Gemara [line 25]:
In the marginal note of the Masores ha'Shas DH Ayein b'Yevamos עיין ביבמות
the words "Ela Ish Ba'al Shmo" אלא איש בעל שמו
should be "Ela Eshba'al Shmo" אלא אשבעל שמו
(according to the verse in Divrei ha'Yamim I 8:33. The same change should be made in the TOSFOS to Yevamos 89a DH Armoni. See Background #13 below.)
 Tosfos 4b DH d'Amar ד"ה דאמר:
The words "d'Felugsa Hi, d'Rav v'Rebbi Yochanan" דפלוגתא דרב ורבי יוחנן
should be "u'Felugsa Hi, v'Rav v'Rebbi Yochanan" ופלוגתא היא ורב ורבי יוחנן
(This is the version found in Tosfos ha'Rosh.)
1)[line 2]"ובניה(ו) בן יהוידע על הכרתי ועל הפלתי""U'VNAYAH(U) BEN YEHOYADA AL HA'KEREISI VEHA'PELEISI"- "and Benayah ben Yehoyada preceded the Urim v'Tumim (which were worn in the Bigdei Kehunah of Evyasar, the Kohen Gadol)" (Shmuel II 20:23) - This translation follows RASHI's opinion, that "ha'Kereisi veha'Peleisi" is another name for the Urim v'Tumim. The people first took counsel with the Sanhedrin (Benayahu was the Av Beis Din) and then consulted the Urim v'Tumim. According to TOSFOS, the translation of the verse is, "and Benayahu ben Yehoyada was the Av Beis Din of the Sanhedrin." TOSFOS understands that "ha'Kereisi veha'Peleisi" is another name for the Sanhedrin.
2a)[line 4]כורתים דבריהםKORSIM DIVREIHEM- they give concise decisions
b)[line 5]מופלאים בדבריהםMUFLA'IM B'DIVREIHEM- their proceedings are wondrous. (According to the Girsa recorded in the Mesores ha'Shas, at this point the Gemara follows RASHI's opinion, that ha'Kereisi veha'Peleisi were the Urim v'Tumim. The Gemara (Yoma 73b) gives states these two reasons as to why the parchment was called Urim v'Tumim. They were either "Me'irin (similar to "Urim") Es Divreihen," "they clarify their words," or "Mashlimin ("Tumim" means Shalem, complete) Es Divreihen," "they fulfill their words.")
3)[line 7]"עורה כבודי עורה הנבל וכנור אעירה שחר""URAH CHEVODI, URAH HA'NEVEL V'CHINOR, A'IRAH SHACHAR"- "Wake up, O my soul! Awake, O lyre and harp! I will wake the dawn!" (Tehilim 57:9).
4)[line 13]אצטגניני פרעהITZTAGNINEI PAR'OH- Pharaoh's astrologers
5)[line 13]בדאיBADAI- deceiver
6a)[line 14]למד לשונך לומר "איני יודע"LAMED LESHONCHA LOMAR "EINI YODE'A"- teach yourself (lit. your tongue) to say, "I do not know."
b)[line 14]שמא תתבדה ותאחזSHEMA TISBADEH V'SE'ACHEZ- lest you be proven to have spoken falsely, and you will be trapped [by your words]
7)[line 15]בפלגא אורתא דתליסר נגהי ארבסר הוה קאיB'FALGA URTA, DI'TELEISAR NAGHEI ARBEISAR, HAVAH KA'I- [Moshe spoke these words] in the middle of the night, following the thirteenth day of Nisan, the eve of the fourteenth of Nisan
8)[line 16]כי האידנאKI HA'IDNA- like this time (i.e. Moshe used the word "ka'Chatzos," "like midnight," since he was speaking to Bnei Yisrael on the midnight before Makas Bechoros, which occurred on the midnight of the fifteenth of Nisan)
9)[line 17]"לדוד... שמרה נפשי כי חסיד אני""L'DAVID... SHOMRAH NAFSHI KI CHASID ANI"- "[A prayer] of David. [Incline Your ear, HaSh-m, answer me, for I am poor and needy.] Preserve my soul; for I am pious; [O my G-d, save Your servant who trusts in You]" (Tehilim 86:1-2).
10)[line 21]אגודות אגודותAGUDOS AGUDOS- in large groups; each with his retinue
11a)[line 21]שפירSHEFIR- the outer skin of an embryo before any sinews, bones, or flesh form
b)[line 21]שליאSHILYA- (lit. vestedure) commonly translated as the placenta; a more accurate description is the fetal membranes in which the fetus forms, which are attached to the placenta (RASHI; TOSFOS to Nidah 18a DH Shilya and elsewhere in the Rishonim)
12)[line 22]אני נמלךANI NIMLACH- I take counsel
13)[line 22]מפיבשת רביMEFIBOSHES RABI - with Mefiboshes, my teacher (MEFIBOSHES)
(a)The MAHARSHA mentions that Mefiboshes was the son of Yonasan, son of King Shaul. However, since our Gemara states that his real name was Ish Boshes, and there is no record of a son of Yonasan called Ish Boshes, the Maharsha suggests that the Girsa of our Gemara be changed to read that his real name was Meriv Ba'al, who is mentioned in Divrei ha'Yamim I 8:34 as a son of Yonasan. According to his opinion, Mefiboshes was probably much younger than King David.
(b)RABEINU TAM (cited in TOSFOS to Yevamos 79a DH Armoni), however, states that Mefiboshes was the son of King Shaul, who was killed by the Giv'onim. (RASHI recounts the story in Berachos 12b DH v'Hoka'num.) He changes the Girsa of our Gemara to read that his real name was Ish Ba'al (actually Eshba'al, as in Divrei ha'Yamim I 8:33), and not Ish Boshes. (As Rav Yakov Emden points out, this approach also has problems. According to all of the commentaries to Divrei ha'Yamim, Eshba'al was actually Ish Boshes son of King Shaul, and not Mefiboshes son of King Shaul. Ba'al is the name of an idol, and Boshes refers to the shame of the people who worship idols.)
(c)RADAK and METZUDAS DAVID on the verses in Divrei ha'Yamim seem to agree with the Maharsha, writing that Eshba'al is King Shaul's son, Ish Boshes, and Meriv Ba'al is Yonasan's son, Mefiboshes.
14)[line 24]"ואדברה בעדותיך נגד מלכים ולא אבוש""VA'ADABERAH V'EIDOSECHA NEGED MELACHIM, V'LO EIVOSH"- "I will speak of your testimonies before kings and not be ashamed" (Tehilim 119:46) - See MAHARSHA.
15)[line 27]כלאבKIL'AV- son of David and Avigayil
16)[line 28]מכליםMACHLIM- shame
17)[line 28]"בני אם חכם לבך ישמח לבי גם אני""BENI IM CHACHAM LIBECHA, YISMACH LIBI GAM ANI"- "My son, if your heart is wise, my heart, too, shall rejoice" (Mishlei 23:15).
18)[line 28]"חכם בני ושמח לבי ואשיבה חורפי דבר""CHACHAM BENI V'SAMACH LIBI, V'ASHIVAH CHORFI DAVAR"- "My son, be wise, and make my heart glad, that I may answer him who reproaches me" (Mishlei 27:11).
19a)[line 36]ביאה ראשונהBI'AH RISHONAH- the first coming [of Bnei Yisrael into Eretz Yisrael in the time of Yehoshua]
b)[line 37]ביאה שנייהBI'AH SHENIYAH- the second coming [of Bnei Yisrael into Eretz Yisrael in the time of Ezra]
20)[line 4]סייגSEYAG- a fence, limit
21)[line 6]קימעאKIM'A- a little bit
22)[line 8]וחוטפתו שינהV'CHOTAFTO SHEINAH- and he falls asleep (lit. sleep "grabs" him)
23a)[line 10]קוראKOREI- (lit. he reads) he learns the verses of Tanach
b)[line 11]שונהSHONEH- he learns Mishnayos
24)[line 12]כל העובר על דברי חכמים חייב מיתהKOL HA'OVER AL DIVREI CHACHAMIM CHAYAV MISAH- all who transgress the words of the sages [and read Keri'as Shema after midnight] are liable to death (RITVA). One who belittles the Mitzvos of the Rabanan and refuses to heed them because they were not written in the Torah does not regret his actions. In this way, transgressing Mitzvos d'Rabanan is more severe than transgressing Mitzvos d'Oraisa, where it is certain that the sinner will regret his actions (SHA'AREI TESHUVAH 3:5). Also, he will not do Teshuvah for his sins, but rather he will keep repeating them (ibid. 3:6).
25)[line 16]תפלת ערבית רשות / חובהTEFILAS ARVIS RESHUS / CHOVAH
The Tana'im and Amora'im argue as to whether Tefilas Arvis (the evening prayer) is optional or obligatory (Berachos 27b). The time to pray Tefilas Arvis is after the time of Tefilas ha'Minchah, i.e. at the beginning of the night according to Tana Kama, and after Pelag ha'Minchah according to Rebbi Yehudah (Berachos 26a). One may begin praying until dawn (POSKIM), but some say that l'Chatchilah one should start before Chatzos (OR L'TZIYON II 15:9).
26)[line 19]זה הסומך גאולה לתפלה של ערביתZEH HA'SOMECH GE'ULAH L'TEFILAH SHEL ARVIS- this is the one who makes sure to pray the Shemoneh Esreh prayer after the last blessing of the Birkos Keri'as Shema that ends with the words "Ga'al Yisrael," "Who redeemed Yisrael." RASHI mentions that our Sugya refers to the Tefilah Shel Arvis, but all the more so one who is Somech Ge'ulah li'Tefilah Shel Shacharis. (The Gemara will discuss the fact that "Ga'al Yisrael" is not the last blessing in Birkos Keri'as Shema of Arvis.)
27)[line 21]תפלות באמצע תקנוםTEFILOS BA'EMTZA TIKNUM- they (the Rabanan) instituted that the Tefilos of Shemoneh Esreh (of Shacharis and Arvis) should be between the two recitations of Keri'as Shema, i.e. that one should pray Shemoneh Esreh in the evening and then recite Keri'as Shema
28)[line 22]גאולה מאורתא נמי הויGE'ULAH ME'URTA NAMI HEVEI- the redemption from Egypt also occurred at night (i.e. Pharaoh's pronouncement that the Jews were free and no longer his slaves, which occurred after Makas Bechoros on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan, was just as significant as the actual physical exodus in the morning)
29a)[line 36]נימא "אשרי תמימי דרך"NEIMA "ASHREI TEMIMEI DERECH"- one could just as well recite Chapter 119 of Tehilim, which begins with the words, "Ashrei Temi'mei Derech"
b)[line 36]דאתיא בתמניא אפיןD'ASYA B'TEMANYA APIN- (lit. that comes in eight facets) that contains eight verses per letter of the alphabet (in which case it is more significant than Tehilah l'David, Tehilim 145)
30)[line 37]הלל הגדולHALEL HA'GADOL- Tehilim 136, each verse of which concludes with the words "Ki l'Olam Chasdo"
31)[line 38]מפלתן של שונאי ישראלMAPALASAN SHEL SON'EI YISRAEL- the downfall of Yisrael (lit. the enemies of Yisrael, a euphemism for Yisrael)
32)[line 38]"נפלה לא תוסיף קום בתולת ישראל""NAFLAH LO SOSIF KUM BESULAS YISRAEL"- "The daughter of Yisrael has fallen; she shall rise no more; [she is forsaken upon her land; there is none to raise her up]" (Amos 5:2).
33)[line 39]נפלה ולא תוסיף לנפול עוד, קום בתולת ישראלNAFLAH V'LO SOSIF LINPOL OD; KUM BESULAS YISRAEL- "She has fallen and shall not fall any further; get up, daughter of Yisrael!"
34)[line 39]סמכן ברוח הקדשSAMCHAN B'RU'ACH HA'KODESH- he supported them through divine inspiration
35)[line 41]"ויעף אלי אחד מן השרפים ובידו רצפה במלקחים לקח מעל המזבח""VA'YA'AF EILAI ECHAD MIN HA' SERAFIM UV'YADO RITZPAH, B'MELKACHAYIM LAKACH ME'AL HA'MIZBE'ACH" - "And one of the Serafim flew to me [and in his hand he held a coal, which he had taken from the Mizbe'ach with a pair of tongs]" (Yeshayah 6:6) (YESHAYAH'S CALLING AS A PROPHET BEGINS)
(a)Following Yeshayah's first vision, he was afraid (just as Mano'ach, the father of Shimshon had been) that he would die because he had seen "the face of the Shechinah." This was a privilege of which he considered himself unworthy; having just spoken Lashon ha'Ra about the Jewish people (by referring to them as "a nation of unclean lips"), he referred to himself as well as "a man of unclean lips." Similarly, Eliyahu ha'Navi would later be reprimanded for accusing Yisrael of forsaking the Mitzvos. In fact, this is why the verse uses the word "Ritzpah" instead of "Rishpah" for both Yeshayah and Eliyahu: it is the acronym of "Retzotz Peh" — "Crush the mouth of the one who speaks Lashon ha'Ra about My children."
(b)Therefore, HaSh-m instructed the angel Micha'el to take a coal from atop the Mizbe'ach, a coal that was too hot even for an angel to carry with his bare hands, and place it on Yeshayah's mouth to atone for his sin. However, since Nevi'im are greater even than angels, despite the heat Yeshayah was not harmed by the coal.
(c)When Yeshayah then heard the "voice" of HaSh-m asking who was prepared to go and rebuke Yisrael, he declared that he was ready to go. (Until the time of the earthquake that followed King Uziyahu's attempt to usurp the Kehunah Gedolah, the acting Navi had been Amos, who (like Moshe Rabeinu) had a serious speech defect, as a result of which the people accused HaSh-m of forsaking the world and resting the Shechinah on a man with a defected tongue.)
(d)Duly cleansed of his sin, Yeshayah volunteered to take over the prophecy, and so began his distinguished career as a Navi.
36a)[line 41]"[ועוד אני מדבר בתפלה] והאיש גבריאל אשר ראיתי בחזון בתחלה מעף ביעף [נגע אלי כעת מנחת ערב]""[V'OD ANI MEDABER BA'TEFILAH,] VEHA'ISH GAVRIEL ASHER RA'ISI V'CHAZON BA'TECHILAH MU'AF BI'AF [NOGE'A EILAI K'ES MINCHAS AREV]" - "[And while I was speaking in prayer,] the man Gavriel, whom I had seen in the vision in the beginning, flew [over to me] in swift flight [at the time of the evening sacrifice]" (Daniel 9:21) (DANIEL AND GAVRIEL)
(a)This chapter was said in the first year of the reign of Daryavesh the Mede (son of Achashverosh the First, who succeeded Belshatzar), following Daniel's error earlier in the chapter (see Megilah 11b).
(b)Thinking that the Galus had been prolonged, Daniel barely finished his long and fervent prayer for Divine mercy when the angel Gavriel (who appeared to him in the time of Belshatzar) appeared to him with information concerning the end of the Galus and beyond.
(c)Gavriel informed Daniel that the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash would occur 70 Shemitah cycles after the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash. The first Galus would come to an end only 18 years later (70 years after the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash), and the construction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash would begin. It would stand for 420 years. That destruction, he explained, together with the harsh Galus that would follow it, would cleanse Yisrael of all their sins (as the verse informs us), paving the way for the coming of Mashi'ach, may he come speedily in our days.
(d)Gavriel also informed Daniel that the 70 years of Galus from the time that Nevuchadnetzar conquered Yehoyakim (18 years prior to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash) were about to come to an end, and that Koresh (the First) of Persia (who succeeded Daryavesh after only one year), would authorize Yisrael to return to Eretz Yisrael. This constituted the beginning of the redemption, although the second Beis ha'Mikdash would not be rebuilt for another 18 years, as explained above. This was the basis for Daniel's initial mistake.
(e)Gavriel also informed Daniel that the people would remain in Galus for a full seven Shemitah cycles (49 years, plus another 3) before Koresh would allow them to return. This constitutes the 70 years following Nevuchadnetzar's capture of Yehoyakim (mentioned above). 70 years minus the 18 years that preceded the Churban Beis ha'Mikdash leaves 52 years, during which time no man passed through Yehudah, as stated in the Gemara in Yoma (54a).
(f)Our Gemara teaches that the words "Mu'af Bi'af," "in swift flight," being a repeated usage of the same root, refer to two flights.
37)[line 43]"והנה מיכאל אחד השרים הראשונים בא לעזרני""V'HINEI MICHA'EL ECHAD HA'SARIM HA'RISHONIM BA L'AZRENI" - "[But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me 21 days;] but, behold, Micha'el, one of the chief princes, came to help me; [and I remained there with the kings of Persia]" (Daniel 10:13) (DANIEL'S SECOND VISION)
(a)In the third year of the reign of Koresh, the king of Persia, Daniel mourned and fasted for three weeks because he foresaw that Koresh was about to stop the building of the second Beis ha'Mikdash that he had earlier permitted. Daniel ate neither good-quality bread nor meat, and he did not drink wine or anoint himself with oil, for 21 days.
(b)On the twenty-fourth of Nisan he was standing on the banks of the Chidekel River together with his friends Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah, when he saw an awesome angel clothed in linen, his loins girded in fine gold. His body resembled dark-blue marble; his face, a flash of lightning; his eyes, fire-brands; his arms and legs like the color of tarnished copper, and his voice sounded like a multitude of people. Daniel saw the angel standing before him, but his friends did not. They did however, sense his frightening presence, and they fled in terror.
(c)Terror-stricken himself, Daniel fell to the ground but the angel strengthened and reassured him that he would not be harmed for what he had seen. The angel also informed him that from the moment that he began to show concern for what was happening to Yisrael and to fast on their behalf, HaSh-m had accepted his prayers, and that this was why he had now been sent to speak to him.
(d)The angel then went on to reveal to Daniel what would happen to Yisrael in future generations. Even as the angel spoke, Daniel lowered his face to the ground and was dumb-stricken. The angel helped Daniel to his feet and assured him that HaSh-m accepted his fasting and prayers from the first moment. The angel told him that he would have appeared immediately, but he had been busy countering the request of the angel of Persia for an extension of their dominance over Yisrael. It was only now that the great angel Micha'el came to assist him that he was able to descend to earth and to convey the current message to Daniel, as well as another message concerning what would happen to Yisrael over a long period of time.
(e)Due to the terrifying appearance of the angel, Daniel once again fell on his face terror-stricken, at which point an angel that resembled a human being (to calm Daniel's fears) came and touched him on the mouth (to give him the strength to respond).
(f)With the help of the second angel, Daniel recovered from his shock. After assuring Daniel that he had nothing to fear and that he had come merely to reveal to him the historical events that were about to unfold, he told Daniel that he would succeed in his battle against the angel of Persia. Following that victory, however, Yisrael's sins would increase, and 304 years into the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, Antiyochus, king of Greece, would take over the kingship and would subjugate Yisrael, and that he, the angel, would be powerless to stop him.
(g)Finally, the angel informed Daniel categorically that of all the myriads of angels in Shamayim, the only one that would join him in Yisrael's defense assistance was Micha'el, Yisrael's Guardian Angel.
38)[line 43]מיכאל באחתMICHA'EL B'ACHAS- Micha'el was able to arrive in only one flight
39)[last line]"רגזו ואל תחטאו אמרו בלבבכם על משכבכם ודומו סלה""RIGZU V'AL TECHETA'U, IMRU VI'LEVAVCHEM AL MISHKAVCHEM V'DOMU, SELAH"- "Tremble, and do not sin; talk with your own heart on your bed, and be still, Selah" (Tehilim 4:5) - The Gemara interprets the second half of this verse to mean, "say the verses that contain the words 'Al Levavecha,' i.e. the Keri'as Shema, when you are about to go to sleep and be silent..."