1)SANCTIFICATION OF THE FESTIVALS
(a)Question: Beis Shamai do not learn the Gezerah Shavah. What is their source that three commoners can annul a vow?
(b)Answer (Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Galili): "Va'Ydaber Moshe Es Mo'adei Hash-m El Bnei Yisrael" - the festivals were said, but Shabbos was not;
1.Ben Azai says, the festivals were said, but the passage of vows was not said.
(c)Question (Rav Yosi bar Noson): What is the meaning of 'Shabbos was not said'?
(d)Answer (Rav Sheshes): The festivals depend on Kidush Beis Din (deciding which day is Rosh Chodesh), but Shabbos does not.
1.One might have thought that since Shabbos is mentioned with the Mo'adim, it also needs Kidush Beis Din. He teaches that this is not so.
(e)Question: What is the meaning of 'the festivals were said, but vows were not said'?
(f)Answer: Kidush of the festivals (through Kidush Rosh Chodesh) requires experts, but annulment of vows does not require experts.
(g)Question: "Roshei ha'Matos" is written regarding vows!
(h)Answer (Rav Chisda): Only an expert can annul a vow by himself. (For commoners to annul, there must be three.)
2)THE 15TH OF AV
(a)(Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): Yisrael did not have days as joyous as Yom Kipur and the 15th of Av.
1.On these days, girls of Yerushalayim went out in white clothing. Every girl borrowed, so a girl that did not have would not be embarrassed.
(b)We understand why Yom Kipur was so festive. It is the day of pardon and forgiveness, the day the second Luchos were given!
(c)Question: What was special about the 15th of Av?
(d)Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): It was the day that intermarriage between the tribes was permitted.
1.Question: What Scriptural source did they have to permit this?
2.Answer: "Zeh ha'Davar (a daughter who inherits must marry within her tribe)" applies only to this generation.
(e)Answer #2 (Rabah bar bar Chanah): On this day, men of Binyamin were permitted to marry women of other tribes.
1."Yisrael Nishba ba'Mitzpah Leimor Ish Mimenu Lo Yiten Bito l'Vinyamin l'Ishah" (after the war against Binyamin, the other tribes swore not to marry off their daughters to men of Binyamin).
2.Question: What Scriptural source did they have to later permit this?
3.Answer: The oath applies to "Mimenu" (us), but not to our children.
(f)Answer #3 (Rav Dimi bar Yosef): On this day, the generation that left Mitzrayim ceased dying in the wilderness.
1."Cha'asher Tamu Kol Anshei ha'Milchamah Lamus...; Va'Ydaber Hash-m Elai" - (from the time of the Meraglim,) until they all died, Hash-m did not speak with Moshe (so closely).
(g)Answer #4 (Ula): On this day Hoshe'ah ben Elah abolished the guards that Yeravam had set up to prevent people of the 10 tribes from ascending to Yerushalayim for the festivals.
(h)Answer #5 (Rav Masneh): On this day they were able to bury those killed in Beitar (at the time of the Churban).
1.(Rav Masneh): On the day that they were able to bury those killed in Beitar, the Sanhedrin in Yavneh enacted the fourth blessing of Birkas ha'Mazon, 'ha'Tov veha'Metiv'.
i.'Ha'Tov' - Hash-m kept the bodies from decaying;
ii.'Ha'Metiv' - He enabled that they will be buried.
(i)Answer #6 (Rabah and Rav Yosef): This is the day that they cease cutting wood for the fire on the altar (Rashbam - we celebrate completion of a great Mitzvah; R. Gershom - we are no longer Batel from Torah).
1.(Beraisa - R. Eliezer ha'Gadol): When the 15th of Av comes, the sun is not so strong, so they stop cutting wood for the altar (lest it be wormy).
2.(Rav Menashe): It is called the day of breaking the saw.
(j)From this day onwards, (the nights get longer, so) one who increases learning at night will live longer. One who does not do so, Yasif.
(k)Question: What does Yasif mean?
(l)Answer (Rav Yosef): His mother will bury him (i.e. he will perish).
3)SEVEN MEN WHO SPANNED THE WORLD
(a)(Beraisa): There are seven men whose lives cover all of time, from the creation of man until today: Adam, Mesushelach, Shem, Yakov, Amram, Achiyah ha'Shiloni, and Eliyahu.
1.Question: How could Achiyah ha'Shiloni have been born in Amram's lifetime? "V'Lo Nosar Mehem Ish Ki Im Kalev ben Yefuneh vi'Hoshua" (only Yehoshua and Kalev entered Eretz Yisrael among the men who left Mitzrayim)!
(b)Answer (Rav Hamnuna): The decree did not include Leviyim. It says "l'Chol Misparchem mi'Ben Esrim Shanah va'Ma'alah";
1.This excludes Leviyim, who are counted from 30 days and older.
(c)Question: Also men from other tribes who left Mitzrayim entered Eretz Yisrael!
1.(Beraisa): Ya'ir ben Menashe and Machir ben Menashe were born in Yakov's lifetime, and they entered Eretz Yisrael.
i.(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "Va'Yaku Mehem Anshei ha'Ai ki'Shloshim v'Shishah Ish" is literally true;
ii.R. Nechemyah: It says like 36! (How can the number not be exact?!) Rather, they killed Ya'ir ben Menashe, who is the equal of the majority of a Sanhedrin.
(d)Answer (Rav Acha bar Yakov): The decree was only on men between 20 and 60.
1.It says "mi'Ben Esrim Shanah va'Ma'alah". We learn a Gezerah Shavah "va'Ma'alah-va'Ma'alah" from Erchin (pledging to Hekdesh a sum based on the age and gender of a particular person).
i.Just like there, above 60 is like below 20 (both have a lower Erech than one between 20 and 60), also regarding the decree to die in the Midbar.