(a)Yirmeyahu wrote Sefer Yirmeyahu, Melachim and Eichah;

(b)Chizkiyahu and his contemporaries wrote Yeshayah, Mishlei, Shir ha'Shirim and Koheles;

(c)The men of the Great Assembly wrote Yechezkeil, the 12, Daniel and Megilas Esther;

(d)Ezra wrote Sefer Ezra, and the lineage at the beginning of Divrei ha'Yamim until himself (Rashi; Tosfos - until the verse "v'Lo Achim Benei Yehoshafat");

1.This supports Rav, who said that Ezra did not leave Bavel until he established his own lineage.

2.Question: Who finished Divrei ha'Yamim?

3.Answer: Nechemyah did.

(e)(Beraisa): Yehoshua wrote Sefer Yehoshua and the last eight verses of the Torah.

(f)Tana'im argue about whether Moshe or Yehoshua wrote the last eight verses.

1.(Beraisa - R. Yehudah or R. Nechemyah): Moshe could not have written "va'Yamas Sham Moshe"!

i.Rather, Moshe wrote until here. Yehoshua wrote the rest.

2.Objection (R. Shimon): Had Moshe omitted even one letter of the Torah, it would not say "Lako'ach Es Sefer ha'Torah ha'Zeh"!

i.Rather, until here, Hash-m dictated the Torah and Moshe wrote;

ii.For these last eight verses, Hash-m dictated and Moshe wrote b'Dema (with tears; Sefas Emes - he wrote the letters without spaces between words).

3.Similarly, Yirmeyahu dictated his prophecy to Baruch (who wrote it; Rashi - similarly, Baruch did not repeat the verses due to remorse) - "mi'Piv Yikra Elai... va'Ani Kosev."

(g)Question: Like whom is the following teaching?

1.(R. Yehoshua bar Aba): One person reads the last eight verses (i.e. we do not split the reading among two people).

2.Suggestion: It is not R. Shimon. He holds that Moshe wrote them, so they should be the same as the rest of the Torah!

(h)Answer: No, it is even like R. Shimon;

1.He admits that Moshe wrote them differently, therefore they have a special status.

(i)Question: We cannot say that Yehoshua wrote Sefer Yehoshua. It says "va'Yamas Yehoshua"!

(j)Answer: Elazar finished it.

(k)Question: It says "v'Elazar ben Aharon Mes"!

(l)Answer: Pinchas finished it.

(m)Question: We cannot say that Shmuel wrote Sefer Shmuel. It says "u'Shmuel Mes"!

(n)Answer: Gad and Nasan finished it.

(o)(Beraisa): David and ten other Chachamim wrote Tehilim.

(p)Question: We should also include Eisan ha'Ezrachi (the author of Tehilim 89)!

(q)Answer: That is Avraham, like it says "Mi He'ir mi'Mizrach".

(r)Question: The Beraisa counts Moshe and Heiman. Rav said that Heiman is Moshe - "b'Chol Beisi Ne'eman Hu"!

(s)Answer: Moshe is Heiman, but Heiman ha'Ezrachi (the author of Tehilim 88) is someone else.


(a)(Beraisa): Moshe wrote the Torah, including the Parshah of Bilam, and Sefer Iyov.

(b)This supports Rav Levi bar Lachma.

1.(Rav Levi bar Lachma): Iyov lived in Moshe's day. It says "Mi Yiten Efo", similar to what Moshe said, "uva'Meh Yivada Efo".

2.Question: Perhaps he lived in the time of Yitzchak (who said "Mi Efo") or Yakov (who said "Efo Zos Asu") or Yosef (who asked "Eifo Hem Ro'im")?!

3.Answer: It also says in Iyov, "...v'Yuchaku". Moshe is called Mechokek.

(c)(Rava): Iyov was in the days of the Meraglim (spies). Iyov lived "b'Eretz Utz", similar to "ha'Yesh Bah Etz."

(d)Objection: 'Utz' and 'Etz' are different!

(e)Answer: Moshe asked the spies to see if the one (Iyov) whose years are great as a tree, and protects his generation like a tree, is still alive. (This is another answer to b:1.)

(f)(A Chacham): Iyov never lived, Sefer Iyov is only a parable.

(g)Rejection (Rav Shmuel bar Nachmani): "Ish Hayah" - he did live!

1.Question: "Kivsah Achas... va'Ychayeha" was only a parable!

2.Answer: If Iyov was only a parable, it would not give his name and his city's name.

(h)(R. Yochanan and R. Elazar): Iyov returned with the exiles from Bavel. His Beis Medrash was in Tiverya.

(i)Question (Beraisa): Iyov lived from when Yisrael descended to Miztrayim until they left.


(j)Answer: It means, Iyov lived as long as the time from when Yisrael descended to Miztrayim until they left (210 years).

(k)Question (Beraisa): Seven Nevi'im from other nations prophesized: Bilam and his father, Iyov, Elifaz ha'Temani, Bildad ha'Shuchi, Tzufar ha'Na'amasi, and Elihu ben Barach'el ha'Buzi. (This shows that Iyov was not a Yisrael!)

1.Counter-question: If so, also Elihu ben Barach'el was not a Yisrael. However, it says that he was from the family of Ram (i.e. Avraham! Alternatively, the verse would not give the lineage of a Nochri! Ya'avetz - really, he descended from Buz ben Nachor, Avraham's nephew. This is why he is called ha'Buzi.)

(l)Answer (to both questions): Rather, the Beraisa means that seven Nevi'im prophesized to the other nations.

(m)Question: All the Nevi'im prophesized for all the nations!

(n)Answer: The prophecies of these seven were primarily for the other nations.

(o)Question (Beraisa): There was a Chasid of the other nations; he came to the world only to get his reward;

1.Hash-m brought punishments upon him. He blasphemed, so Hash-m doubled his reward in this world to deprive him of his reward in the world to come.

(p)Answer: Tana'im argue about whether or not he was a Yisrael.

1.(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): Iyov was in the days of the Shoftim;

i.It says "Hevel Tehavlu" - this is the generation that judged its judges.

2.R. Yehoshua ben Korchah says, he was in the days of Achashverosh - "v'Lo Nimzta Nashim Yafos.. b'Chol ha'Aretz";

i.In Achashverosh's day they sought the most beautiful women.

ii.Question: They did also in David's day!

iii.Answer: Then, they searched only in Eretz Yisrael, but not in the whole world.

3.R. Noson says, he was in the days of Malkas (the kingdom of) Sheva - "va'Tipol Sheva."

4.Chachamim say, he was in the days of Kasdim (Babylonians, i.e. Nebuchadnetzar) - "Kasdim... Hiku..."

5.Some say, he was in the days of Yakov, and married Dinah;

i.It says "k'Daber Achas ha'Nevalos", like it says about Dinah "Nevalah Asah b'Yisrael."

6.All the opinions except the last must hold that Iyov was a Yisrael, since they say that he lived after Moshe; (Maharsha - even Yakov's descendants were not considered 'Yisrael' until Matan Torah. Alternatively, it is unreasonable that his descendant would marry her.) (Perhaps this is unreasonable, for Utz (where Iyov lived) is not Mitzrayim, and we cannot say that Iyov was afflicted (at the age of 70) before all Bnei Yisrael descended to Mitzrayim (Yakov had no son above 46 at the time), nor was it after Bnei Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael (Rashi Bamidbar 26:46 implies that Dinah died before this - PF).)

i.Moshe requested that Hash-m not give prophecy to Nochrim, and Hash-m agreed - "v'Niflinu... mi'Kol ha'Am."

(q)(R. Yochanan): The generation of Iyov was steeped in lewdness;

1.It says "Kulchem Chazisem", similar to "v'Nechezeh Bach" (looking at a woman).

2.Suggestion: Perhaps it means to see through prophecy, like it says "Chazon Yeshayahu"!

3.Rejection: (The verse continues) "Hevel Tehbalu."

(r)(R. Yochanan): "Bi'Mei Shefot ha'Shoftim" refers to a generation that judged its judges;

1.If a judge would rebuke someone for a small transgression, the person would rebuke the judge for a great transgression.

(s)(Rav Shmuel bar Nachmani): Malkas Sheva was not a woman, rather it is the kingdom of Sheva.


(a)"Va'Ya'an ha'Satan" - the Satan told Hash-m that he did not see anyone in the world as faithful as Avraham;

1.Even though Hash-m told Avraham that he will give to him Eretz Yisrael, and Avraham could not find a burial place for Sarah until he paid 400 Shekalim, he did not resent this. (A typical yearly income was 50 Shekalim. Efron demanded coins 100 times bigger than standard Shekalim (Rashi Bereishis 23:16).)

(b)Hash-m told the Satan to consider Iyov.

(c)(R. Yochanan): The verse praises Iyov more than Avraham!

1.Regarding Avraham it says "Yerei Elokim." Regarding Iyov it says "Ish Tam v'Yashar Yerei Elokim v'Sar me'Ra";

2.Question: What does it mean "v'Sar me'Ra"?

3.Answer (R. Aba bar Shmuel): He was easygoing with his money;

i.Normally, if one owes half a Perutah (the smallest coin is a Perutah), he buys something for a Perutah and shares it with the one he owes. Iyov would give the full Perutah.

(d)Question: "The Satan answered... 'Ma'ase Yadav Berachta."' What does this mean?

(e)Answer (Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak): Anyone who received a Perutah from Iyov was blessed.

(f)Question: What does it mean "u'Miknehu Paratz ba'Aretz"?

(g)Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Iyov's flock overstepped nature;

1.Normally, wolves kill goats; Iyov's flock killed wolves.

(h)The Satan thought that if Iyov's prosperity ceased, he would blaspheme. Hash-m authorized the Satan to do as he wishes to it.

(i)Question: "The cattle were plowing and the donkeys were grazing Al Yedeihem." What does this mean?

(j)Answer (R. Yochanan): (The fodder grew instantly.) Hash-m gave Iyov a taste of the world to come.