ZEVACHIM 45 (14 Sivan) - Dedicated by Doug Rabin in memory of his mother, Leah Miriam bat Yisroel (Lucy) Rabin, in honor of her Yahrzeit.

[45a - 40 lines; 45b - 37 lines]

1)[line 1]הלכתא משיחאHILCHESA LI'MESHICHA?!- is this a Halachic ruling for the times of the Mashi'ach (which has no practical application today)?

2)[line 1]כל שחיטת קדשים לא ליתניKOL SHECHITAS KODASHIM LO LISNI- then we should not learn the tractate of Zevachim (which deals with the Halachos of the Korbanos, since the offering of Korbanos will only return with the arrival of the Mashi'ach)!

3)[line 3]דרוש וקבל שכרDEROSH V'KABEL SACHAR- learn it and receive a reward [for the actual Torah learning]

4)[line 4]הלכתא למה ליHILCHESA LAMAH LI- why do I need a Halachic ruling [if the purpose of Halachic decisions is solely to set down the practical application of the law, and these laws are not currently applicable]?

5)[line 5]הלכה קאמינאHALACHAH KA'AMINA- I asked that this is a ruling of practical Halachah [which is needed only for the era of Mashi'ach]

6)[line 6]קדשי עובדי כוכביםKODSHEI OVDEI KOCHAVIM- the offerings of idolaters; i.e. a Nochri may bring a voluntary offering in fulfillment of a personal vow to the Beis ha'Mikdash

7)[line 7]והשוחטן בחוץ פטורVEHA'SHOCHATAN BA'CHUTZ PATUR- and one who slaughters them outside the Beis ha'Mikdash is exempt (see Zevachim 116b, where the Gemara discusses the allowance for Nochrim to consecrate and slaughter offerings to HaSh-m outside the Beis ha'Mikdash)

8)[line 11]תמורהTEMURAH

See Background to Zevachim 5:22.

9)[line 14]בקדשי מזבחB'KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- with that which holds intrinsic Kedushah, such as an animal fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach, or a utensils fit to be used in the performance of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5). This is also termed KEDUSHAS HA'GUF.

10)[line 15]בקדשי בדק הביתB'KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS- with that which is not fit to be used in its present state in the Beis ha'Mikdash, but whose value is consecrated to Hekdesh. Such items are sold, and the proceeds go toward any day-to-day needs of Hekdesh. This is also termed KEDUSHAS DAMIM.

11)[line 24]למעשר דגןL'MA'ASER DAGAN (MA'ASER DAGAN)

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at approximately one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim (Devarim 14:22-27). Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth (Vayikra 27:30-31).

12)[line 28]בתר מלמד אזלינןBASAR MELAMED AZLINAN- we follow that which teaches the law. (There is a dispute in cases in which we wish to extend a law that is stated explicitly in a non-sacrificial context, through a two-stage Hekesh, to a sacrificial context. One opinion maintains that the nature of the subject which is the source of the law determines whether we apply the restriction unique to Kodshim. Another opinion maintains that the nature of the subject to which we seek to extend the law is the determining factor.)

13)[line 29]מעשר בהמהMA'ASER BEHEMAH

See Background to Zevachim 2:9.

14)[line 38]קדושת הגוףKEDUSHAS HA'GUF- see above, entry #9.

15)[line 39]דקדושת דמיםD'KEDUSHAS DAMIM- see above, entry #10.

16)[line 40]בשוגג, הורצהB'SHOGEG, HURTZAH - [if it became Tamei] unintentionally, it is desirable [i.e. valid, through the power of the Tzitz (see next entry), and the owner receives atonement and may partake of the meat of his Korban] (RITZUY TZITZ)

(a)If a Korban or any part of a Korban becomes Tamei, it is unfit to be offered. Therefore, if the blood of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), the Zerikah may not be performed. Rebbi Yehoshua rules that even if the Dam is Tahor, if all of the meat and Chelev of a Korban becomes Tamei or otherwise unfit before Zerikas ha'Dam, it is prohibited to perform Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). Another application of this law is that if the Emurim (innards) or other parts of a Korban that are offered on the Mizbe'ach become Teme'im, The Kohanim may no longer offer them on the Mizbe'ach.

(b)These laws, however, apply only l'Chatchilah. B'Di'eved, if the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz at the time during which a Kohen sprinkled Dam which was Tamei, then the presence of the Tzitz causes that Avodah to be accepted. This means that the owner has fulfilled his obligation of bringing that Korban, and he may therefore eat from his offering. This Halachah is derived from the verse, "... l'Ratzon Lahem Lifnei HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38). If it was the meat that became Tamei, then the Tzitz - while rendering the Korban acceptable - does not allow it to be eaten.

(c)Korbenos Tzibur (public sacrifices) do not require the Tzitz in order for them to be accepted as valid offerings. These offerings may be offered l'Chatchilah even while in a state of Tum'ah. Another related difference between Korbenos Tzibur and Korbenos Yachid is that even if all of the Kohanim are Teme'im, they may still offer Korbanos l'Chatchilah. These Korbanos, when offered b'Tum'ah, may not be eaten (with the exception of the Korban Pesach, which has the status of a Korban Tzibur and may even be eaten b'Tum'ah).

45b----------------------------------------45b

17)[line 1]במזיד לא הורצהB'MEZID, LO HURTZAH- [if it became Tamei] intentionally, it is not desirable (i.e., the owner may not partake of the meat of his Korban mid'Rabanan, although he still receives atonement through the power of the Tzitz; see previous entry)

18)[line 11]"[והיה על מצח אהרן, ונשא אהרן את עון הקדשים אשר יקדישו בני ישראל לכל מתנת קדשיהם; והיה על מצחו תמיד] לרצון להם [לפני ה']""[V'HAYAH AL METZACH AHARON, V'NASA AHARON ES AVON HA'KODASHIM ASHER YAKDISHU BENEI YISRAEL L'CHOL MATNOS KODSHEIHEM; V'HAYAH AL MITZCHO TAMID] L'RATZON LAHEM [LIFNEI HASH-M]"- "[And it (the Tzitz) shall be upon Aharon's forehead, and Aharon may bear any guilt incurred in the holy offerings, which the people of Yisrael consecrate, for all of their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead,] that they may be accepted [before HaSh-m]" (Shemos 28:38) - See above, entry #16:b.

19)[line 19]פיגול שהוא בקביעהPIGUL SHE'HU BI'KEVI'AH- Pigul, for which one is obligated to bring a fixed Chatas offering; i.e. one who inadvertently eats meat of a Korban which is Pigul may bring only an animal Chatas of either a female lamb or a kid for atonement, regardless of whether he is wealthy or poor, and therefore his offering is a fixed one)

20)[line 20]ולא הותר מכללוV'LO HUTAR MI'KELALO- and which has no exceptions to its rule [of the prohibition against eating Pigul, even in the case of communal offerings]

21)[line 22]עולה ויורדOLEH V'YORED (KORBAN OLEH V'YORED)

(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored to atone for sins in three specific cases:

1.Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1),

2.Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2),

3.Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1).

(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent:

1.If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir).

2.If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus).

3.If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chotei (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus) (Vayikra 5:6-13).

(c)The Minchas Chotei is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chotei, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise - RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).

22)[line 35]והני נפישןV'HANEI NEFISHAN- and these (the similarities between Nosar and Pigul) are greater in number (than the similarities between Nosar and Tum'ah)

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