YOMA 44 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[44a - 43 lines; 44b - 43 lines]

1a)[line 2]שילהSHILOH- The city of Shiloh was in the portion of Efrayim. Mishkan Shiloh was built there following the fourteen years necessary to conquer and apportion Eretz Yisrael; it stood for 369 years (Seder Olam Rabah 11)

b)[line 2]בית עולמיםBEIS OLAMIM- the Beis ha'Mikdash, called the "Eternal Dwelling" since - once chosen - it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah

2)[line 3]שעת הקטרה ... שעת מתן דמיםSHA'AS HAKTARA .. SHA'AS MATAN DAMIM (AVODAS YOM HA'KIPURIM)

(a)While wearing the four white linen garments reserved for the Avodah special to Yom ha'Kipurim (see Background to 39:57), the Kohen Gadol performs the Yom Kipur service in the following order:

1.He recites Viduy (confession) on his own behalf as well as that of his immediate family over the bull bought with his personal funds (see Background to 39:47);

2.He draws lots to determine which of the two identical goats was to be a Chatas offered upon the Mizbe'ach and which was to be sent to Azazel (see Background to 36:24,36);

3.He again recites Viduy over his bull, this time on behalf of all Kohanim;

4.He slaughters the bull;

5.He enters the Kodesh ha'Kodashim bearing a pan of coals and a long-handled bowl of Ketores (see Background to 38:17), places the Ketores on the coals, and waits until the cloud of incense fills the chamber;

6.He sprinkles some of the blood from his bull toward the Paroches (the cover of the Aron) seven times;

7.He slaughters the goat designated as a Chatas;

8.He sprinkles some of the blood from the goat toward the Paroches seven times;

9.Standing in the Heichal, he sprinkles some of the blood from his bull toward the Kapores (the curtain dividing the Kodesh ha'Kodashim from the Heichal) seven times;

10.Standing in the Heichal, he sprinkles some of the blood from the goat toward the Kapores seven times;

11.He mixes the two containers of blood together;

12.He applies some of the mixed blood to the four corners of the Golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal;

13.Later, in the afternoon, the Kohen Gadol dons the white garments for a second time and removes the pan and bowl that he had left in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim.

(b)The Beraisa quoted in our Gemara derives from the verse (Vayikra 16:17) that no one may be in the Ohel Mo'ed at the time that the Ketores is burned in either the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim or when it is burned in the Heichal twice every day. In addition, no one may be in the Ohel Mo'ed when blood of a Korban is sprinkled in either of the two places as well.

3)[line 7]כפרת ביתו(KAPARAS BEISO)- the atonement of his wife. (The VILNA GA'ON removes these words from the Gemara.)

4)[line 11]מאי משמע?MAI MASHMA?- how does the verse imply [that it is referring to the burning of the Ketores]?

5)[line 15]זה הקטרת הקטורתZEH HAKTARAS HAKETORES- The burning of the Ketores atones for all of Klal Yisrael together. The atonement achieved on behalf of all Kohanim through the sprinkling of the blood of the bull of the Kohen Gadol, however, is achieved for the rest of the nation through that of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach.

6)[line 20]לשון הרעLASHON HA'RA

(a)The Torah forbids one from speaking Lashon ha'Ra (Vayikra 19:16). Literally "evil speech," this includes speaking ill of another, whether to his face or not in his presence, and whether or not the things said are true (see Erchin 16a, the commentaries there, and Sefer Chofetz Chayim by Rav Yisroel Meir ha'Kohen mi'Radin).

(b)Although one cannot receive atonement after wronging his fellow until he asks their forgiveness, perhaps the aspect of Lashon ha'Ra atoned for through the Ketores is that which Hash-m became angry at Klal Yisrael through his actions (see RASHI DH Ahanu Ma'asav, Erchin 16a).

7a)[line 20]דבר שבחשאיDAVAR SHEB'CHASHAI- that of secrecy; i.e., the Ketores that is burned in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim where no one is allowed

b)[line 21]מעשה חשאיMA'ASEH CHASHAI- that which is done secretly; i.e., Lashon ha'Ra, which is generally whispered from one to another about a third party

8)[line 21]פורשין מבין האולם ולמזבחPORSHIN MI'BEIN HA'ULAM VELA'MIZBE'ACH- everyone must stay away from the twenty-two Amah wide area between the Ulam (TY# 56; the entrance hall to the Heichal) and the outer Mizbe'ach

9)[line 24]לפני לפניםLIFNAI V'LIFNIM- the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

10)[line 26]ואמרי לה כדיV'AMRI LAH KEDI- a) and some say it was [asked by a Amora named] Kedi; b) and some say it was asked anonymously (RASHI Gitin 85b)

11)[line 28]מתןMATAN- the [sprinkling and] application [of blood]

12)[line 28]פר כהן משיחPAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH

(a)If a Kohen Gadol unintentionally transgresses a sin that is punishable by Kares, he must offer a bull as a Korban Chatas.

(b)After its slaughter, the blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal toward the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, while the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The flesh and remaining parts of the bull are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon [Yoma 67b], those involved with burning the Par are also Metamei Begadim.)

13)[line 29]פר העלם דבר של ציבורPAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBOR

(a)If the Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) issues a ruling in error permitting a transgression that is punishable by Kares, and those in Eretz Yisrael - either the majority of Klal Yisrael or most of the Shevatim - act upon their ruling, then they must offer a Par He'elem Davar to atone for the nation. This Korban consists of twelve bulls offered as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each tribe. If the sin committed was that of idolatry, then the Korban differs and is termed Se'irei Avodas Kochavim (see next entry; RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).

(b)After their slaughter, the blood of each bull is sprinkled seven times in the Heichal toward the Paroches. It is then applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach, while the Emurim (innards and certain fats) are burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c) The flesh and remaining parts of the bulls are burned outside of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). The clothing of those who carry the carcasses out of the Azarah become Tamei. (According to Rebbi Shimon [Yoma 67b], those involved with burning the Paros are also Metamei Begadim.)

14)[line 29]שעירי עבודה זרהSE'IREI AVODAS KOCHAVIM

(a)If the sin transgressed by the majority of Klal Yisrael when the Sanhedrin ruled in error (see previous entry) was related that of idolatry, then Se'irei Avodas Kochavim are offered in place of a Par He'elem Davar. Twelve bulls are offered by the Sanhedrin as Korbenos Olah, along with twelve goats offered as Korbenos Chatas - one on behalf of each Shevet. The goats are treated as the bulls of a regular Par He'elem Davar are.

15)[line 30]הא מה מעלה ישHA MAH MA'ALES YESH- now, what difference is there that demonstrates the difference in Kedushah

16a)[line 32]בשעת הקטרהSHA'AS HAKTARAH- [at this point, the Gemara understands this to mean] the time during which the Ketores is burned [in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim]

b)[line 32]שלא בשעת הקטרהSHE'LO B'SHA'AS HAKTARAH- [at this point, the Gemara understands this to mean] the time during which the Ketores is not burned [in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim, but rather the blood of the Par and Sa'ir are being sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim]

17)[line 36]בשעת הקטרה דהיכלBI'SHE'AS HAKTARAH D'HEICHAL- at the time during which the daily Ketores is burned [upon the Mizbach ha'Ketores] in the Heichal.

18)[line 37]"הא מה מעלה," ותו לא?"HA MAH MA'ALAH," V'SU LO?- is this the only demonstration of the difference in Kedushah [between the Heichal and the area between the Ulam and the Mizbe'ach]?

19)[line 41]הא קתניHA KETANI- [the Gemara answers,] this is the intention of that which is taught in the Beraisa

20a)[line 42]שעת הקטרהSHA'AS HAKTARAH- [at this point, the Gemara understands this to mean] the time during which the daily Ketores is burned [upon the Mizbach ha'Ketores in the Heichal

b)[line 42]שלא בשעת הקטרהSHE'LO B'SHA'AS HAKTARAH- [at this point, the Gemara understands this to mean] the time during which the daily Ketores is not burned [in the Heichal, but rather during which the Ketores is burned in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim]

44b----------------------------------------44b

21)[line 2]קדושה דידיהKEDUSHAH DIDEI- the application of blood [to the corners of the Mizbach ha'Ketores] in it. (This usage of the word "Kedushah" is based upon the words "v'Tiharo v'Kidsho" - "and he shall purify and sanctify it," stated regarding the application of blood to the Keranos of the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi [Vayikra 16:19].)

22)[line 5]שם פרישה אחת היאSHEM PERISHAH ACHAS HI- [since all must stay away from the area between the Ulam and the Mizbe'ach when the Ketores is burned or the blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, but not when these activities take place in the Heichal,] it is all one category of "staying away."

23a)[line 9]מעלות דאורייתאMA'ALOS D'ORAISA- the distinctions drawn between levels of higher and lower Kedushah [enumerated by the Mishnah (Kelim 1:8); namely, in order from lowest to highest, Har ha'Bayis [the temple mount], the Cheil [TY #8; The area that extended for ten Amos surrounding the Azaros], the Ezras Nashim [TY #10], the Ezras Yisrael [TY #22], the Ezras Kohanim [between the Ezras Yisrael and the Mizbe'ach], the area between the Ulam and the Mizbe'ach, the Heichal, and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim] are d'Oraisa

b)[line 10]והכי גמירי להוV'HACHI GEMIRI LEHU- and this is the way in which they were taught by a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai

24)[line 11]מיקרו ועייליMIKRU V'AILI- they may happen to enter [the Heichal]

25)[line 14]לא מינכרא מילתאLO MINKERA MILSA- it is not obvious [that one is about to cross the boundary set by the Chachamim in order to stay away from the Heichal]

26)[line 17]שתי קדושות נינהוSHTEI KEDUSHOS NINHU- they are two differing levels of Kedushah

27a)[line 21]מ"טMAI TAIMA?- what is the reason [that the first shovel is made from silver and not gold]?

b)[line 21]התורה חסה על ממונן של ישראלHA'TORAH CHASA AL MAMONAN SHEL YISRAEL- the Torah cares for the money of Yisrael [and therefore discourages spending money unnecessarily, and the burning coals wear out the metal of the shovel]

28)[line 23]חולשאCHULSHA- weakness

29a)[line 24]נתפזרו לו קב גחליםNISPAZRU LO KAV GECHALIM- [when] a Kav of coals would scatter [due to that which the shovel which was used daily to gather the coals holds four Kav, while that which they were poured into holds three]

b)[line 25]מכבדן לאמהMECHABDAN LA'AMAH- he would sweep them into the Amah[-by-Amah channel of water running through the Azarah]

30)[line 27]רבי יוסיREBBI YOSI- Rebbi Yosi [who is of the opinion that the first shovel holds a full Se'ah (six Kav), leading to an overflow of three Kav]

31)[line 30]בשל קביים היה מכניסB'SHEL KABAYIM HAYAH MACHNIS- with a shovel that holds two Kav they would [receive the coals from the four-Kav shovel and] transport them [to the Heichal]

32a)[line 32]מדבריתSE'AH MIDBARIS- the measure of a Se'ah in Midbar Sinai [when it held five Kav]

b)[line 33]ירושלמיותYERUSHALMIYOS- the measure of a Se'ah in Yerushalayim [where the leaders of the generation added one sixth of the ensuing total, equal to one fifth of the original amount, to the Se'ah Midbaris (that is, an entire Kav) once they arrived there for the first time]

33)[line 35]גלדהGILDAH- the thickness of its [walls]

34)[line 35]רךRACH- lit. soft; thin

35)[line 35]היתהHAISAH- [its handle] was

36)[line 36]זרועו של כ"ג מסייעתוZERO'O SHEL KOHEN GADOL MESAYAITO- the forearm of the Kohen Gadol would be able to assist him [in performing Chafinah; see Background to 43:36]

37)[line 38]ניאשתיקNI'ASHTIK- a) a golden ring attached to the handle of the Machtah that rattled when the Kohan Gadol walked. The Kohen Gadol must make noise when he enters the Heichal (Shemos 28:35). Normally, the bells on the bottom of the Me'il, which was not worn when he entered the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, served this purpose (RASHI); b) a leather cover for the handle of the Machtah, which became very hot since it sat with coals in it for a while on Yom ha'Kipurim (RABEINU CHANANEL, and RIVA cited in TOSFOS DH b'Chol Yom); c) a cover for the pan. Normally, the Kohen Gadol could wave the heat away with his left hand, but on Yom ha'Kipurim he uses it to carry the Ketores (RITVA)

38)[line 40]זהב טובZAHAV TOV- a) high quality gold (RASHI); (b) purified gold (YERUSHALMI Yoma 4:4, cited in TOSFOS; see Si'ach Yitzchak)

39)[line 41]פרויםPARVAYIM- [of] cows

40)[line 42]"וּזְהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב ...""U'ZEHAV HA'ARETZ HA'HI TOV ..."- "And the gold of that land is good ..." (Bereishis 2:12). The description of the gold of Eden as "good," it is clear that there is gold that is not as good.

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