BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
[a - 32 lines; b - 38 lines]
1) [line 1] EIPUCH - switch around [the opinions and their authors as set forth by Abaye on 23b]
2) [line 6] BEKI'AS HA'NOD - the breaking of a leather skin (that contains the wine in the case discussed in the Beraisa, which would make the final designation of the Terumah and Ma'asros impossible)
3) [line 12] TEVELIM - produce from which Terumah and/or Ma'aser has not been separated
4) [line 13] LECHESHE'YIBAKA - [we will worry about such a possibility] when it breaks; i.e., it is possible to be careful enough that we need not be concerned that such a thing will happen
5a) [line 18] MASKININ LO - they designate for [the Kohen Gadol who is to perform the Yom Kipur service]
*b*) [line 19] SHEMA TAMUS ISHTO - lest his wife die [on Yom ha'Kipurim]. The Kohen Gadol who performs the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash on Yom ha'Kipurim must be married at that time. This is understood from the verse (Vayikra 16:6) which states "... and he shall atone for himself and his household."
6) [line 20] MAILAH ASU B'CHAPARAH - they were especially stringent in matters pertaining to atonement
7) [line 27] SHE'OMEDES B'RU'ACH - that is able to stand due only to air [such as an animal, which would keel over if not for that which it breathes]
8) [line 29] KOL MECHITZAH SHE'EINAH ASUYAH B'YEDEI ADAM - any partition that a person cannot manufacture (see Insights)
9) [line 31] D'UKMAH B'NOD TAFU'ACH - [a case in which] one supported [a partition] with an inflated leather skin
10) [line 3] "... [V'CHASAV LAH] SEFER [KERISUS V'NASAN B'YADAH, V'SHILCHAH MI'BEISO.]" - "[When a man shall take a woman and live with her; and it will be, if she does not find favor in his eyes ... he shall write to her] a document [of divorce and place it in her hand, and send her from his house]" (Devarim 24:1).
11a) [line 4] SEFER - parchment
b) [line 4] KOL DAVAR - any other material (e.g. a wooden tablet, pottery, etc.)
12) [line 7] V'EINO OCHEL - and is not a food item
13) [line 9] SEFIRAS DEVARIM B'ALMA - a recounting of the divorce
*14*) [line 12] ISKASH YETZI'AH L'HAVAYAH - Numerous Halachos are derived from a Hekesh that compares divorce (Yetzi'ah) to betrothal (Kidushin; Havayah). The Hekesh is found in the wording of the verse, "v'Yatz'ah mi'Beiso, v'Halchah v'Hayesah l'Ish Acher ..." -- "And she will leave his house, and go and marry another ..." (Devarim 24:2).
15) [line 13] MAH HAVAYAH B'CHESEF (KIDUSHIN)
(a) The first stage of Halachic marriage is called Kidushin (betrothal). Kidushin can be accomplished in one of three ways:
1. Kesef - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her money or anything equal in value to a Perutah (a very small coin). Upon doing so, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'(-----) Zu" -- "Behold you are betrothed to me through this (-----)".
2. Shtar - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her a marriage document. This may be written upon any surface, and need not be of any specific value. The words "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Shtar Zeh" must be written upon the Shtar.
3. Bi'ah - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through having relations with her. At that time, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Bi'ah Zu". Because Kidushin requires witnesses, the Chachamim strongly condemned anyone who uses this method of Kidushin.
(b) The Torah refers to this stage of marriage as "Eirusin" (Devarim 22:23). The term "Kidushin" is used by the Rabanan in order to connote that just as everyone is prohibited to benefit from Hekdesh (an object sanctified to the service of Hash-m), through Kidushin a woman becomes prohibited to everyone in the world save her husband (Kidushin 2b; see also Tosfos 7a DH v'Nifshetu).
(c) At the time that Kidushin takes place a Berachah known as Birkas Eirusin is recited (Kesuvos 7b).
16) [line 20] HAREI ZEH KERISUS - this is a valid severance (and is effective immediately)
17) [line 20] MI"KARES" "KERISUS" NAFKA - derives it from that which the Torah could have written the word "Kares" and instead chose to write the word "Kerisus"
18) [line 27] KA'AZIL V'ASI - it (the wall of trees) sways back and forth [in the wind]
19) [line 28] KASHIN - hardened [trees]
20) [line 28] NOFO - its branches
21) [line 28] D'AVID LEI B'HUTZA V'DAFNA - that he fixed them in place [by weaving] palm fronds (Hutza) and laurel branches (Dafna; O.F. lorier - laurel) [into them]
*22*) [line 30] L'ISHTAMUSHEI B'ILAN - to utilize the tree. This is a concern on Shabbos or Yom Tov, as it is prohibited mid'Rabanan to touch a tree then for fear that one may break part of it off.
23a) [line 31] GADER - a stone fence [that is at least one Amah wide and one Amah long]
b) [line 32] MECHITZAS HA'KANIM - a fence comprised of growing reeds [planted in the L-shape of a Deyomad]
24) [line 32] DEYOMAD - see Background to 23:7
25) [line 34] ILAN HA'MEISEICH AL HA'ARETZ - a tree [whose branches droop and] hang over the ground (a.k.a. a weeping willow)
26) [line 35] METALTELIN TACHTAV (HOTZA'AH)
(a) Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:
1. the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain);
2. Hachnasah, which refers to the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid;
3. Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, which refers to carrying an object from one place in a Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos;
4. Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through a Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah on Shabbos 96a).
All of these are biblical prohibitions.
(b) The Beraisa quoted by our Gemara states that the drooping ends of the branches of a tree that reach to within three Tefachim of the ground form Mechitzos, transforming the area within into a Reshus ha'Yachid. Therefore one may carry throughout the area, and one is not limited to four Amos in every direction.
27) [line 37] ALAMAH ...? - why ...?
Index to Background for Maseches Sukah