[13a - 39 lines; b 13- 37 lines]

1a)[line 1]סרי ריחייהוSARI REICHAIHU- their odor is offensive

b)[line 1]שביק להו ונפיקSHAVIK LEHU V'NAFIK- he will leave them behind and go out [of the Sukah]

2)[line 2]היזמי והיגיHIZMEI V'HEIGEI- [branches from] different types of prickly bushes

3)[line 4]נתרי טרפייהוNASREI TARPAIHU- their leaves fall off

4)[line 5]אפקותא דדיקלאAFKUSA D'DIKLA- many-branched prickly shoots that grow from the base of a palm tree

5)[line 6]אע"ג דאגידיAF AL GAV D'AGIDEI- even though they are "bound" (i.e., attached at the bottom)

6)[line 7]הדר אגיד להוHADAR AGID LEHU- he binds the spread ends of the branches [so that they fill the Sechach in more fully]

7)[line 8]איגד בחדIGED B'CHAD- binding [the various ends of] a single object

8)[line 9]דוקרי דקניDUKREI D'KANEI- many-branched prickly shoots that grow from the base of reeds

9)[line 16]מרריתא דאגמאMERARISA D'AGMA- Maror that grows in a swamp. This refers, specifically, to a) marsh lettuce (RASHI); b) Ranunculus (crowfoot) (TOSFOS); c) (O.F. tore) aconite (RASHI, TOSFOS Chulin 59a)

10)[line 17]אזובEZOV (MITZVAS EZOV)


The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)


If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a Mes, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)


(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. See Background to Yoma 41:17 for further details of the Halachos concerning a Metzora.

(b)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool, and an Ezov branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields. This is the first stage in the purification process of a Metzora (Vayikra 14:1-7).


(a)If a streak or spot that is a stark green or red color is found upon the stones of a house, it may be Tzara'as (a spiritual malady). A Kohen must be called to determine the status of the marks. See Background to 3:9 for further details of the Halachos concerning Nig'ei Batim.

(b)On the day that the house is declared by the Kohen to be free of Nega'im, its owner procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and an Ezov branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times toward the lintel on the house. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields. This completes the purification of the house (Vayikra 14:49-53).

11a)[line 17]אזוב יוןEZOV YAVAN- Greek hyssop

b)[line 18]אזוב כוחליEZOV KOCHALI- blue hyssop

c)[line 18]אזוב מדבריEZOV MIDBARI- desert hyssop

d)[line 18]אזוב רומיEZOV ROMI- Roman hyssop

12)[line 19]שם לוויSHEM LEVAI- an accompanying modifier

13)[line 21]הני לא נשתנה שמייהו קודם מתן תורה כללHANI LO NISHTANAH SHEMAIHU KODEM MATAN TORAH KLAL- and the names of these (the herbs termed "swamp Maror") were not changed before the giving of the Torah at all (i.e., they were called simply "Maror" then, and were therefore included in the Maror mentioned in the Torah)

14)[line 24]משתכחMISHTECHACH- they are found

15a)[line 27]קלחיםKELACHIN- stalks

b)[line 28]גבעוליןSHELOSHAH GIV'OLIN- three stems resulting in seeds (one per stalk)

16a)[line 29]שיריו שניםSHEYARAV SHENAYIM- [if one should fall out, than the bundle is still valid as long as] two remain

b)[line 29]וגרדומיו כל שהואV'GARDUMAV, KOL SHE'HU- [and if the stalks break through the sprinkling process, then] as long as some part remains [in the bundle it is valid] (although each stalk must be at least a Tefach long to begin with)

17)[line 31]למצוהL'MITZVAH- ideally; l'Chatchilah

18)[line 36]והתניאV'HATANYA- This Beraisa is offered as proof.


19)[line 2]איסורייתא דסוראISURYASA D'SURA- bundles of reed found in Sura (a place in Bavel)

20)[line 3]למנינא בעלמא הוא דאגדןL'MINYANA B'ALMA HU D'AGADAN- they are bundled only in order to facilitate counting them (and Gezeiras Otzar therefore does not apply)

21)[line 4]צריפי דאורבניTZERIFEI D'URBENEI- a hunters' shelter constructed by weaving the ends of willow branches into a circle on the bottom and into a point on the top such that it resembles a teepee

22)[line 5]ראשי מעדניםROSHEI MA'ADANIM- the upper knots

23)[line 6]מתתאיMI'TATA'EI- from the bottom

24)[line 6]שרי להוSHAREI LEHU- he untied the [the knot at the end of the weave; undoing the weave unnecessary]

25)[line 8]שאינו עשוי לטלטלוSHE'EINO ASUY L'TALTELO- through which one is unable to move [the bound items] from place to place [since the weave will unravel once the top knots are undone]

26)[line 11]מביאין את הטומאה ואין חוצצין בפני הטומאהMEVI'IN ES HA'TUM'AH V'EIN CHOTZETZIN BI'FNEI HA'TUM'AH (TUM'AS OHEL)

(a)When at least a k'Zayis of a dead body or the bones of a Mes are in a covered area which is at least one Tefach in length, width and height (such as in a room of a house), the Ohel (lit. tent) causes all (Jewish) people, vessels, and food which has been Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah (see Background to Eruvin 83:1) below it to become Tamei, while at the same time preventing anything above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah (spreads the Tum'ah underneath it) and is Chotzetz bi'Fnei ha'Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel).

(b)In order for bones of a dead body to be Metamei b'Ohel, they must meet at least one of the following three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (this condition is fulfilled whether they are the majority of the build [Rov Binyano] of a body or whether they are the majority of the number [Rov Minyano] of the 248 bones of a body); 3. The bone is either a complete skull or a complete spinal column. This is in contrast to the minimum requirement for a bone to be Metamei through Maga (touching) or Masa (carrying); for these Tum'os it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(c)In an Ohel ha'Mes, people, vessels, or food in the Ohel become Tamei even if the Mes only passes through without stopping. One who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only part of his body enters the Ohel, and even if he enters backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)

(d)Not every object which stands over Tum'ah is Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects which are Mevi and not Chotzetz, others which are Chotzetz and not Mevi, and yet others which are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). Thin-leafed vegetables that are kosher for Maror on Pesach, such as lettuce, function as an Ohel mid'Oraisa. However, since they easily dry out and shrink, the Chachamim were afraid that they will lose the necessary Tefach without one realizing so. They therefore decreed that such food items never prevent Tum'ah from rising (Mevi v'Eino Chotzetz).

27)[line 12]פוסלין בסוכה משום אוירPOSLIN B'SUKAH MISHUM AVIR- they are Halachically considered invalid Sechach as if they were not there at all (in which case even three Tefachim of air invalidates the Sukah; invalid Sechach does not invalidate a Sukah unless there is at least four Tefachim of it in the middle of the Sechach or four Amos along a wall)

28)[line 13]פרכיPARCHEI- they crumble

29)[line 15]הבוצר לגתHA'BOTZER L'GAS- one who harvests grapes for the winepress (i.e., for the purposes of winemaking)

30)[line 15]ידותYADOS

(a)Vessels and food are examples of items that can receive Tum'ah (see Background to 11:7). The handle of a vessel or the stem attached to a fruit have no ability to become Tamei on their own. However, when they are attached to a vessel or fruit, than they too become Tamei along with the vessel or fruit. Furthermore, if they come into contact with a source of Tum'ah, then that Tum'ah will transfer to the vessel or fruit. Since they are necessary to handle the more important object, they have no significance of their own and are considered part of the vessel or fruit (See Insights to Chulin 128:3).

31)[line 18]לא נימצייה לחמריהLO NIMATZYEI L'CHAMREI- that they should not absorb his wine

32)[line 21]כי היכי דלא ליבדרןKI HEICHI D'LO LIVADRAN- [he is pleased with the fact that the kernels are attached to the stalks, even though they are invalid as Sechach,] so that [the stalks] are not scattered [a) and then lost (RASHI); b) in the wind, in which case there will be no Sechach (TOSFOS)]

33a)[line 22]סוכי תאניםSOCHEI TE'EINIM- fig-tree branches

b)[line 23]פרכיליןPARKILIN- grapevines

c)[line 23]קשיןKASHIN- stalks of wheat

d)[line 23]שבליםSHIBOLIM- wheat spikes (the kernels of grain plus the chaff that sit atop the stalks)

e)[line 24]מכבדותMECHABDOS- date-palm branches