SUKAH 6 (15 Elul) - dedicated by Reb Yechiel Wachtel and family of Har Nof, Yerushalayim, l'Iluy Nishmas his father, Reb Shimon Eliezer ben Reb Yechiel Wachtel, who passed away on 15 Elul 5757.

[6a - 23 lines; 6b - 36 lines]

1a)[line 2]עד שישהה בכדי אכילת פרסAD SHE'YISH'HEH BI'CHEDEI ACHILAS PRAS

(a)As a general rule, when the Torah requires one to fulfill a Mitzvah through eating, he must eat a minimum amount within a specific length of time. The minimum amount termed an Achilah is one k'Zayis, the equivalent of an average sized olive including its pit. This is also the amount that one must consume of that which is prohibited to eat (such as blood or certain fats) in order to be liable for punishment.

(b)The minimum length of time within which he must consume the k'Zayis is called "Kedei Achilas Pras." This refers to how long it takes to eat half of a standard loaf of wheat bread, dipped in relish, while he is reclining. This is the equivalent of either three or four Beitzim, depending on the differing opinions; see Eruvin 82b).

(c)Our Gemara teaches that this is also the minimum of time that one must remain inside of House afflicted with Tzara'as in order for his clothing to become Tamei.

b)[line 3]פת חטין ולא פת שעוריןPAS CHITIN V'LO PAS SE'ORIN- wheat bread, and not barley bread. A loaf of wheat bread is smaller than a loaf of barley bread.

2)[line 4]מיסבMEISEV- [eaten while] reclining

3)[line 4]ליפטןLIFTAN- a relish

4)[line 5]מטמא במגע ובמשא ... מטמא באהלMETAMEI B'MAGA UV'MASA ... METAMEI B'OHEL

(a)When at least a k'Zayis of a dead body or the bones of a Mes are in a covered area which is at least one Tefach in length, width and height (such as in a room of a house), the Ohel (lit. tent) causes all (Jewish) people, vessels, and food which has been Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah (see Background to Eruvin 83:1) below it to become Tamei, while at the same time preventing anything above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah (spreads the Tum'ah underneath it) and is Chotzetz bi'Fnei ha'Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel).

(b)In order for bones of a dead body to be Metamei b'Ohel, they must meet at least one of the following three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (this condition is fulfilled whether they are the majority of the build [Rov Binyano] of a body or whether they are the majority of the number [Rov Minyano] of the 248 bones of a body); 3. The bone is either a complete skull or a complete spinal column. This is in contrast to the minimum requirement for a bone to be Metamei through Maga (touching) or Masa (carrying); for these Tum'os it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(c)In an Ohel ha'Mes, people, vessels, or food in the Ohel become Tamei even if the Mes only passes through without stopping. One who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only part of his body enters the Ohel, and even if he enters backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)

(d)Not every object which stands over Tum'ah is Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects which are Mevi and not Chotzetz, others which are Chotzetz and not Mevi, and yet others which are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5).

5)[line 6]כדי רביעית יין לנזירKEDEI REVI'IS YAYIN L'NAZIR

(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to: 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine.

(b)If a Nazir drinks a Revi'is of wine in front of witnesses and after being warned what his punishment will be, he receives Malkos (lashes). RASHI explains that the Revi'is of wine mentioned in our Sugya is one that is used to measure the Shi'ur of other foods forbidden to a Nazir. If a Nazir consumes enough grape leaves, stems, peels, or pits to displace a Revi'is of wine, then he receives Malkos. As wine is more viscous than water, this is a larger Shi'ur than that which is required to displace a Revi'is of water.

6)[line 7]כגרוגרת להוצאת שבתK'GROGERES L'HOTZA'AS SHABBOS

(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either (a) transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain), (b) Hachnasah, which refers to transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid, (c) Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, (d) Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah on Shabbos Daf 96a; see Background to Daf 4a). All of these are biblical prohibitions.

(b)In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (putting the object to rest) must be performed on the object by the same person. If one person does the Akirah and another the Hanachah, only a Rabbinical prohibition is involved (Shabbos 3a).

(c)If the object transferred from one Reshus to another is a food item, then one is liable to receive punishment only if he moved food equivalent in size to a Grogeres (dried fig).

7)[line 8]כל כלי בעלי בתים שיעורן כרמוניםKOL KLEI BA'ALEI BATIM SHI'URUN K'RIMONIM (TUM'AS KLI)

(a)All objects belong to one of the following three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)A metal utensil can become an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah, an Av ha'Tum'ah, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Insights to Pesachim 14b); a person and all utensils other than earthenware can become an Av ha'Tum'ah or Rishon l'Tum'ah (although Chazal decreed that one's hands sometimes have the status of a Sheni l'Tum'ah); Earthenware utensils can only become a Rishon l'Tum'ah; food and liquids which are Chulin can become a Rishon l'Tum'ah or a Sheni l'Tum'ah; Terumah can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah as well; and Hekdesh can receive the status of a Revi'i l'Tum'ah.

(d)A wooden or leather Kli (vessel) can receive Tum'ah as long as it is still usable. If it breaks, or develops a hole that renders it unusable, then it no longer has the status of a Kli and as such does not receive Tum'ah. A merchant can no longer sell a vessel that has developed a small hole. Therefore if one of his vessels develops a hole it can no longer receive Tum'ah. Private individuals, however, will simply use their utensils to hold larger objects when holes develop. Therefore such Kelim remain able to receive Tum'ah until their holes are the size of pomegranates.

8)[line 11]שרוב שיעוריה כזיתיםSHE'ROV SHI'UREHA K'ZEISIM- One who consumes most items that are forbidden to eat - such as meat from an animal slaughtered in a Halachically invalid manner, the prohibited fats of an animal, or a Korban left over beyond the time during which it must be eaten, to name a few - incurs the appropriate punishment only if he consumes a k'Zayis, bi'Chedei Achilas Pras (see above, entry #1). Likewise, most Mitzvos that require eating - for example, Matzah, Maror, and Birkas ha'Mazon - require that one eat a k'Zayis bi'Chedei Achilas Pras.

9)[line 12]ככותבת הגסה ביום הכפוריםK'CHOSEVES HA'GASAH L'YOM HA'KIPURIM

(a)One who eats on Yom ha'Kipurim is not liable to receive punishment until he consumes an amount equivalent to a Koseves ha'Gasah (a large date).

10a)[line 19]נימא אחת קשורהNIMA ACHAS KESHURAH- a single hair tied [into a knot]

b)[line 19]שלשSHALOSH- three [hairs tied together in a knot)


11)[line 1]רובוRUBO- [an intervening substance covering] most of one's [body]

12)[line 8]הא דאמרןHA D'AMARAN- that which we said (namely, that a Mechitzah must be at least ten Tefachim high)

13)[line 9]גודGUD

(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high.

(b)Certain Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai allow one to consider certain incomplete Mechitzos as complete for Halachic purposes (Sukah 5b). One of these applications is Gud Asik (lit. stretch and pull up). This Halachah states that Mechitzos are considered to extend upward indefinitely, as long as they are ten Tefachim high to begin with.

(c)Another Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai in this vein is Gud Achis (lit. stretch and pull down). This Halachah states that Mechitzos are considered to extend downward indefinitely, as long as they are ten Tefachim high to begin with.

(d)An additional Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai implied by the word "Gud" is "Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem". When an area is covered by a roof, this law states that the edge of the beams of the roof "descends and encloses" (Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem), even though that side is completely open and has no physical partition. We may consider the area enclosed for Halachic purposes (see Insights to Eruvin 25:2). Amora'im disagree as to whether Pi Tikrah can be applied to all four sides of a roof or only to three sides when one Mechitzah already exists (according to RASHI; see Insights to Eruvin 86a.).

14)[line 10]לבודLAVUD

(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high.

(b)Certain Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai allow one to consider certain incomplete Mechitzos as complete for Halachic purposes (Sukah 5b). One of these applications is Lavud (lit. a branch or connection). This Halachah states that when there is a space less than three full Tefachim between the Mechitzah and the surface (or object) next to, above, or below it, we consider it to be a complete Mechitzah in which the surfaces or objects are connected without any gaps. (The space itself is not ignored, but rather measured along with and as a part of the existing segment of the partition.)

15)[line 10]דופן עקומהDOFEN AKUMAH

A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that if a stretch of less than four Amos of invalid Sechach lies between a portion of kosher Sechach that measures at least seven by seven Tefachim and a wall, then that material may be considered part of the adjacent wall (Dofen) that bends (Akumah) to meet the Sechach.

16)[line 11]כהלכתןK'HILCHASAN- Halachically complete Mechitzos

17)[line 13]יש אם למסורת / יש אם למקראYESH EM LA'MASORES / YESH EM LA'MIKRA

The Torah is written without vowelization. Many times a Vav or a Yud may fit in a certain place in a word, but do not necessarily need to appear there; we have a tradition which determines whether or not they do. Due to instances such as these, many words appear to be pronounced one way, but according to the vowelization are actually pronounced otherwise. Which meaning - that which appears to be the meaning according to the traditional spelling, or that according to the way it is pronounced - is followed when deriving laws from the text? This is the subject of a Machlokes between the Amora'im. Some maintain Yesh Em la'Masores - the Pasuk is interpreted based upon the way it appears in its written state. Others are of the opinion that Yesh Em la'Mikra - the Pasuk is interpreted based upon the way it is read.

18)[line 15]בסכת בסכת בסכות הרי כאן ארבעBA'SUKAS, BA'SUKAS, BA'SUKOS HAREI KAN ARBA- The word pronounce "ba'Sukos" is written three times regarding the festival of Sukos (Vayikra 3:34,42). Once it is written with a "Vav," according to the way that it is pronounced, and twice without, which implies a pronunciation of "ba'Sukas." "Ba'Sukos" implies "in the Sukos of," while "ba'Sukas" implies "in the Sukah of." One implication of more than one Sukah plus two implications of one Sukah each add up to four total.

19)[line 16]דל חד לגופיהDAL CHAD L'GUFEI- subtract one [implication, as it is necessary] to teach us that we must dwell in a Sukah on Sukos

20)[line 16]פשוPASHU- there remains

21)[line 17]הלכתאHILCHESA- the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai [of Mechitzin]

22)[line 18]וגרעתהV'GAR'ASAH- and reduces

23)[line 25]סככה לא בעיא קראSECHACHAH LO BA'I KRA- Sechach does not require a verse [as it is implied by the word "Sukah"]

24)[line 30]בדורשין תחילותB'DORSHIN TECHILOS- whether or not we may derive anything from the implication of the first occurrence of a word (see above, entry #19)

25)[line 19]"וְסֻכָּה תִּהְיֶה לְצֵל-יוֹמָם מֵחֹרֶב, וּלְמַחְסֶה וּלְמִסְתּוֹר מִזֶּרֶם וּמִמָּטָר.""V'SUKAH TIHEYEH L'TZEL YOMAM ME'CHOREV..." (The protection afforded the Tzadikim in the days of Mashi'ach)

(a)Yeshayah ha'Navi describes the seven types of protection that Hash-m will provide against the Nochrim for those who remain in Yerushalayim in the days of Mashi'ach: cloud, smoke, bright light, fire, flame, Chupah, and Shechinah. He then explains how the Tzadikim will be shielded against the heat of a super-hot sun, the fire of the river Yanur (taken from Gehinom), and the torrential rain with which Hash-m shall punish the Resha'im: "And there will be a Sukah to provide shade from the heat of the day, and shelter and protection from the windstream and rain" (Yeshayah 4:6).

(b)Rav Masna maintains that Rebbi Shimon derives his opinion that a Sukah requires four walls from the description of a Sukah in this verse as protection against the wind. If any side was missing, then the wind would whip around and enter through that opening.

26)[line 35]כנגד היוצאKENEGED HA'YOTZEI- perpendicular to either end of two walls joined at a right angle