1) [line 1] V'YA'AMIDENO KENEGED ROSH TOR - why should one not place the third Tefach-long wall angling toward the far corner (see picture in RASHI) similar to a) the diagonal formed by the tapering rows at the edge of a plowed field (RASHI); b) a triangular shaped earring (RASH to Kil'ayim 2:7) [so that it better replaces the two missing Mechitzos]?
2a) [line 5] TEFACH SOCHEK - a wide (lit. laughing) Tefach; i.e., one measured with the fingers of one's hand held slightly apart from one another, resulting in a measurement slightly longer than a Tefach.
*b*) [line 5] U'MA'AMIDO B'PACHOS MI'SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM SAMUCH L'DOFEN ... - and he should place it so that it is within three Tefachim of the corner and ends at four Tefachim from the corner. In this way, through Lavud (see Background to 6:14), a Mechitzah of four Tefachim is formed. This is the minimum size of what may be considered a Mechitzah.
3a) [line 8] K'MAVOY - like an [open-ended] alleyway; i.e., of two parallel walls
b) [line 8] KESHEIRAH - is valid [after an additional Tefach-long wall is added]
4) [line 9] L'CHOL RU'ACH SHE'YIRTZEH - perpendicular to any corner that he wishes
5) [line 10] PAS - a panel
6) [line 16] D'LEIKA SHTEI DEFANOS - that two walls [in the Halachically prescribed manner; i.e., placed perpendicular to each other and meeting in the corner] are not present
7) [line 18] TZURAS HA'PESACH
(a) (a) The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid or the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). If one of the required Mechitzos contains a breach larger than ten Amos, or if the Mechitzah present is not Halachically valid, then the area is not Halachically surrounded by Mechitzos. In these situations the construction of a doorway -- a Tzuras ha'Pesach - may be used to complete a Mechitzah.
(b) A Tzuras ha'Pesach consists of a simple doorframe: "One pole on each side, and a rod placed across them" (Eruvin 11b). The airspace within the Tzuras ha'Pesach is considered part of the wall rather than a breach, since it is a necessary part of the structure.
(c) A number of other conditions must be fulfilled in order for the Tzuras ha'Pesach to be Halachically kosher; see Insights to Eruvin 11b and 16b.
8a) [line 18] V'EINAH NITERES ELA B'TZURAS HA'PESACH - and [that which the third wall may be only one Tefach wide] is only permitted when [one half-Tefach-wide plank is set at one of the corners of two full perpendicular walls, another half-Tefach-wide plank is set at least seven Tefachim away along the third side, and a rod is placed across them,] forming a doorway
b) [line 19] V'NITERES NAMI B'TZURAS HA'PESACH - [not only may a panel slightly wider than a Tefach be placed just within three Tefachim of one corner in order to validate a Sukah as a third wall as described by Rebbi Simon, but] it is also permitted when [one half-Tefach-wide plank is set at one of the corners of two full perpendicular walls, another half-Tefach-wide plank is set at least seven Tefachim away along the third side, and a rod is placed across them,] forming a doorway
c) [line 20] U'TZERICHAH NAMI TZURAS HA'PESACH - [not only does the third wall of a Sukah require a panel slightly wider than a Tefach be placed just within three Tefachim of one corner, but] it also requires [a pole to be set at least three Tefachim further along the third side -- for a total of seven Tefachim -- with a rod placed across that panel and the pole, thereby forming] a doorway
*9*) [line 26] SHETAYIM K'HILCHASAN ... - The heading of this Gemara refers to the Beraisa quoted on 6b (line 11).
10) [line 26] V'CHEN L'SHABBOS - [although such an area is not generally considered a Reshus ha'Yachid with regard to the Halachos of Hotza'ah (see Background to 6:6),] on Shabbos [*of Sukos*] a Sukah consisting of two full walls and a third of only one Tefach does gain the status of a Reshus ha'Yachid
11) [line 27] MIGO - since
12) [line 29] DOFEN SUKAH K'DOFEN SHABBOS - Any [partition Halachically considered a] Mechitzah [for the purposes of defining a Reshus ha'Yachid] on Shabbos [-- such as a fence consisting of stakes placed within three Tefachim of each other, so that they are Halachically joined through Lavud (see Background to 6:14) --] may also be considered a Mechitzah for the purposes of building a Sukah
13) [line 30] KANEH - a reed
14) [line 32] OMED MERUBAH AL HA'PARUTZ
(a) In order to create a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) for the purpose of carrying within it on Shabbos, it must have an area of at least four by four Tefachim and be surrounded by Mechitzos (partitions) at least ten Tefachim tall. Any breach in these Mechitzos up to ten Amos long is merely considered an entrance/exit and does not invalidate the Mechitzah, as long as four Tefachim of the length of the Mechitzah remain on each side.
(b) A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches us that this is only true, however, as long as the total length of all of the standing (Omed) Mechitzos is greater (Merubah) than the combined length of all of the breaches (Parutz). If the total length of breaches is greater than that of the Mechitzos -- "Parutz Merubah Al ha'Omed" -- then the Mechitzah is not valid.
*15*) [line 33] MAH SHE'EIN KEN B'SUKAH - A Sukah is not limited by the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai described in the previous entry. A Sukah is kosher when it has two complete walls plus a third of only one Tefach. This situation is one in which, even if there are no breaks in either of the two full Mechitzos, there is barely more standing partition than open space. If entranceways exist in either of the two full Mechitzos, then the Sukah is valid as long as they remain Halachically valid Mechitzos - even if the Sukah is now in a state of Parutz Merubah Al ha'Omed.
16) [line 36] LECHI
(a) A Mavoy is an alleyway that is enclosed on three sides. Many courtyards are accessible through this alleyway, and the residents of these courtyards pass through the Mavoy on their way to the Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain). The term "Mavoy" is taken from the verse which describes the "Mevo ha'Ir" -- "entrance to the city" (Shoftim 1:24).) Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain), in which case one may carry within it, the Chachamim prohibited carrying in a Mavoy for a distance of more than four Amos. This decree was enacted due to that which many families make use of a single Mavoy. One may therefore come to confuse a Mavoy with a Reshus ha'Rabim.
(b) Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a Lechi is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi may be a pole, a plank, or any other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall), or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins. (Eruvin 5a, 15a).
(c) Abaye suggests that on Shabbos of Sukos, since a Lechi of any width suffices to make the area a Reshus ha'Yachid through acting as a Mechitzah according to Rava, such an area should be a kosher Sukah on Shabbos of Sukos as well. If so, why did the Beraisa not mention such a ruling?
17) [line 37] MI'KILTA L'CHAMIRTA AMRINAN - we say [that the Halachah regarding] the more lenient case [of Sukah] can [leniently] affect the more stringent [Halachos regarding Hotza'ah on Shabbos]
18) [line 2] PASEI BIRA'OS
(a) Chazal issued various lenient rulings in order to facilitate an easier fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. This Mitzvah entails traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos. One of these rulings is known as Pasei Bira'os (planks of the springs) or Deyomdin (a contraction of Deyo Amudim - two planks).
(b) A well that is at least four Tefachim wide by four Tefachim long by ten Tefachim deep is a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain). If this well is located in a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain), Torah law states that one may not draw water from it and then bring the water into the Reshus ha'Rabim. the only way in which one would be able to drink from the water in the well would be to enter the interior of the well and drink it there. This would pose a difficulty for those who were traveling to Yerushalayim and were encamped upon the road for Shabbos along their way.
(c) The Chachamim ruled that one may designate an area surrounding the well as a Reshus ha'Yachid, thereby allowing the drawing of water into that area, in the following manner. In each corner of the area one must place an L-shaped corner piece comprised of two Amah-wide planks set at right angles to each other. The two Amah-long extensions at the ends of each of the four sides constitute a partition according to Torah law, with the openings between them considered doorways (TOSFOS Eruvin 17b DH Osin). Rebbi Meir maintains that the gap between these planks must not exceed ten Amos, while Rebbi Yehudah rules that they may be up to thirteen and one-third Amos wide. Although mid'Rabanan this will not generally suffice to act as a Mechitzah (partition) for the purposes of designating different domains on Shabbos, they made an exception in this case for Olei Regalim. As long as most of a person or animal is within these Pasim, he may drink from the water drawn from the well and placed upon the ground.
19) [line 3] U'TZRICHA - and it is necessary [for Rava to enumerate each of the three cases in which that which is a valid Mechitzah for either Shabbos or Sukah constitutes a valid Mechitzah for the other on Shabbos of Sukah]
20) [line 6] SHEM ARBA DEFANOS - parts of four recognizable Mechitzos
21) [line 11] CHAMASAH MACHMAS SICHUCH - [the sunlight entering the Sukah that invalidates it if it is more than the shade offered by the Sukah as described in our Mishnah refers to] sunlight allowed through the Sechach
22) [line 15] "... V'SAKOSA AL HA'ARON ES HA'PAROCHES." - "[And you shall place the Aron of Testimony there,] and you shall cause the curtain (separating the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim) to be "Sechach" over the Aron" (Shemos 40:3).
23) [line 17] D'NEIKOF BAH PURTA - that we should fold a bit [of the Paroches so that it lies along the ceiling]
*24*) [line 2O] KULHU SEVIRA LEHU SUKAH DIRAS KEVA BE'INAN SUKAH (DIRAS ARAI/KEVA B'INAN)
(a) There is a wide-ranging discussion and disagreement among the Amora'im as to whether the Sukah within one must sit on Sukos should be a temporary structure (Diras Arai) or a permanent structure (Diras Keva). The Torah states, "ba'Sukos Teshvu Shiv'as Yamim" -- "You (plural) should dwell for seven days in Sukos" (Vayikra 23:42). Rava (Sukah 2a) states that we learn from this Pasuk that the nature of a Sukah should be that it is a temporary structure, useful for only seven days. The Ran and others explain that the Torah clearly cannot intend for us to build a structure that will collapse after exactly seven days. The Torah must therefore intend that the dimensions of the Sukah must be those conform to that of a temporary structure (although the Sukah may be constructed with strong materials; see Gemara ibid.).
(b) In Sukah (7b), Abaye lists a number of Tana'im, all of whom are of the opinion that a Sukah requires some aspect of a Diras Keva. These include Rebbi, who requires that a Sukah be at least four-by-four Amos; Rebbi Yoshiyah, who requires that even the walls of a Sukah allow no more sunlight than they do shade; Rebbi Yehudah, who allows one to build a Sukah that stands more than twenty Amos tall; Rebbi Shimon, who requires more than three full walls for a Sukah (instead of only two plus); Raban Gamliel, who does not allow a Sukah built atop a wagon or boat; Beis Shamai, who require that a Sukah be large enough to fit one's head, most of one's body, and his table (for a total area of seven by seven Tefachim); Rebbi Eliezer, who requires that a Sukah have a discernable roof and walls (as opposed to slanted walls); and Acherim, who does not allow a circular Sukah. Abaye does not mean that all of these following opinions agree with each other; indeed, as TOSFOS (DH Kulhu) points out, many of them disagree with the other opinions quoted here. Rather, Abaye's intention in grouping them together is to point out that, in his opinion, we do not rule according to any of these opinions since they maintain that a Sukah has an aspect of a permanent dwelling ("Ein Halachah k'Shitah"; see, for example, ME'IRI to Daf 2a and 3a).
(c) While some of the opinions quoted by Abaye are clearly of the opinion that a Sukah must contain an aspect of Diras Keva, there is much discussion among the commentaries regarding whether these opinions all contend that this is true, or if some of them simply allow a Sukah to contain an aspect of Keva. Some opinions seem to state that one can be of the opinion that a Sukah requires Diras Keva and still prefer it to be a Diras Arai (see Pnei Moshe to Yerushalmi, Ma'asros 3:3; see also the second footnote of the Korban Nesanel on the Rosh to Sukah 7a). The Chafetz Chaim explains that the Halachah is that a Sukah must be a Diras Arai with certain aspects of Keva (Bi'ur Halachah O.C. 634 DH "Afilu Im").
25) [line 28] B'ROSH HA'AGALAH - atop a wagon
26a) [line 33] K'MIN TZERIF - like a teepee, in which the roof is formed by the walls leaning inward until they come to a point
b) [line 33] SHE'SAMCHAH L'KOSEL - that he leaned [material kosher for Sechach] against a wall [at an angle such that it formed a lean-to]
27) [line 36] HA'ASUYAH K'SHOVACH - that is made [circular] like a pigeon coop
28) [line 37] ZAVIYOS - corners
29) [line 38] HA'ASUYAH K'CHIVSHAN - that is made [circular] like a furnace
30) [line 38] HEKEIFAH - its circumference
31) [line 42] GAVRA B'AMSA YASIV - a person sits in an Amah; i.e., an average person is one Amah wide
32) [line 43] KOL SHE'YESH B'HEKEIFO SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM YESH BO ROCHAV TEFACH - any [circle] with a circumference of three Tefachim has a diameter of one Tefach
33) [last line] TREISAR - twelve
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