SHEKALIM 10 (24 Cheshvan) - dedicated by Dr. Moshe and Rivkie Snow in memory of Rivkie's father, the Manostrishtcher Rebbe, Hagaon Rav Yitzchak Yoel ben Harav Gedaliah Aharon Rabinowitz Ztz"l, Rav of Kehilas Nachalas Yehoshua in Canarsie, NY. A personification of the Torah scholar of old, the Ukranian-born Rebbe lived most of his life in the United States where his warm ways changed many lives.

[10a - 60 lines; 10b - 51 lines]

1)[line 1]זמן עצי כהנים והעם(KORBAN EITZIM)

(a)During the construction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, there was a shortage of firewood for the Mizbe'ach. A number of families donated wood from their private stores to the Beis ha'Mikdash at that time. In recognition of this Mitzvah, these families and their descendants were granted the privilege of bringing wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash at a certain appointed time every year (Nechemyah 10:35).

(b)The day upon which they were to bring their Korban Eitzim was a personal Yom Tov for the family. They would offer Olos Nedavah upon the Mizbe'ach, and would not fast, deliver a eulogy or engage in Melachah. (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 6:9)

(c)The Mishnah lists the families who had this privilege, and at which times they brought their Korban Eitzim (Ta'anis 26a).

2)[line 2]מה ראו לְהִימָנוֹת?- why did they see fit to appoint [specific families and times? [Any individual who wishes do donate wood for the Mizbe'ach may do so!]

3)[line 11]מַכְשִירֵי קרבן- those things necessary in order for the Korban to be offered

4)[line 11]כָּל עַמָא מוֹדְיִי (כולי עלמא מודים)- everyone agrees

5)[line 13]כֻּתּוֹנֶת(BIGDEI KEHUNAH)

(a)Every Kohen wore four white linen garments while performing the Avodah. The Bigdei Kehunah are the Kutones (long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (belt), and Mitznefes (turban).

(b)Our Gemara discusses the mother of a Kohen who wishes to make the tunic for her son to wear during the Avodah.

6)[line 19]אותן הימים(MEGILAS TA'ANIS)

(a)Megilas Ta'anis was written in the times of the Tana'im, at the end of the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. It is a list of dates that were set aside as holidays, due to miracles that occurred on these days to Bnei Yisrael. On some of the dates, fasting alone was forbidden. On others, delivering a eulogy was also included in the Rabbinical prohibition. Whether fasting and/or delivering a eulogy are permitted on the preceding or following day is the subject of a Machlokes Tana'im (Ta'anis 15b; see Gemara there 18a). These days were transcribed in the Megilah so that they not be forgotten. One of the holidays mentioned in Megilas Ta'anis is the day upon which a family brought their Korban Eitzim.

(b)Following the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, the holidays of Megilas Ta'anis were no longer observed, with the exception of Chanukah and Purim (Gemara Rosh Hashanah 19b). The Gemara explains that since we experience Divine help so frequently under the rule of the nations, we are unable to celebrate every day upon which we experience salvation (Shabbos 13b).

7)[line 20]בשעת קרבן- when Korbanos are offered; i.e., when the Beis ha'Mikdash was standing

8)[line 23]סְנָאָה בן בנימין- Sena'ah of the Shevet of Binyamin. He was the head of one of the families who merited to bring the Korban Eitzim.

9a)[line 24]והיינו מִתְעַנִין- and we would [begin to] fast [to mourn the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash]

b)[line 25]ולא מַשְלִימִין- but we did not finish the fast, since the tenth of Av was the day upon which my family brought the Korban Eitzim. Rebbi Eliezer, who observed his personal holiday even after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, is disagreeing with Rebbi Yosi. This disproves the theory of Rebbi Acha, who maintained that there is no such thing as a privately donated Korban Tzibur according to anyone other than Rebbi Yosi.

10)[line 28]וכל קרבנות- and all Korbenos Minchah (RASHI Menachos 83b - see Tosfos ibid.)

11)[line 28]באין- may be [composed of grain] from

12)[line 29]חדש- see Background to 9:64

13)[line 32]מן הַסוּריָא- [even] from certain parts of modern-day Syria that were conquered by David ha'Melech. Surya shares certain Halachic qualities with Eretz Yisrael

14)[line 35]ביכורים(BIKURIM)

(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing those fruits which were the first to emerge in one's field at the beginning of the season to the Beis ha'Mikdash. After arriving in the Beis ha'Mikdash, while the basket is still on his shoulder, the owner of the fruit recites specific verses from Devarim (26:3,5-10) which thank HaSh-m for taking us out of Egypt and giving us the land of Eretz Yisrael. He then places his basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).

(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael is blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land [heard from a leading botanist - MK].)

(c)In certain instances, one does not recite any verses when bringing Bikurim (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if one brings Bikurim between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite any verses (see 36b and Rashi there).

15)[line 38]מה חָרִיש רשות ...- Regarding Shabbos, the Torah commands, "... be'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos" - "... rest from plowing and reaping" (Shemos 34:21). Rebbi Yishmael derives from these extra words that one may reap grain for the Korban ha'Omer even on Shabbos.

16)[line 40]כְּדַעתֵּיה (לטעמיה)- rules here in accordance with his opinion elsewhere

17)[line 44]רבי ישמעאל היא- It must be Rebbi Yishmael, for according to those opinions that one may bring grain from Chutz la'Aretz for the Korban ha'Omer and Shtei ha'Lechem, what reason is there to permit the desecration of Shemitah?

18)[line 46]ההן (האי)- that

19)[line 46]מהו שֶיִזָרַע בתחילה?- may one plant it during Shemitah?

20)[line 47]לא נמצא כקומץ על השיריים שאינן נאכלין- is it not comparable to a Kometz (see Background to 6:34) taken from a Minchah which will not permit the remainder of Minchah to be eaten? Such a Kometz is not Halachically considered a Kometz. Since an Omer which is planted during Shevi'is will not permit any other grain planted in Shevi'is to be eaten when offered, it should not function as a Korban ha'Omer, and therefore should not permit any grain at all.

21)[line 48]נעשה כחמשה דברים ...- Two of the five things listed in Pesachim (76b) that may be offered when they are Tamei - even though they will not be eaten - are the Korban ha'Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem. From the fact that they are an exception to the rule in this Halachah, they may be with regard to planting them during Shemitah as well.

22)[line 49]כיצד הוא עושה?- how was [the payment of the guard from Hekdesh money] carried out?

23)[line 50]שולחני- a moneychanger

24)[line 50]קוֹצרִין- those who harvest wheat

25)[line 52]וּמְחַלְלִין עליו- and they transfer the Kedushah [from the coin] to the barley [and then pay the coin to the moneychanger]

26)[line 52]וטָבוֹת כן?- is this proper? [Since much of the barley will be lost through the grinding process, Hekdesh will lose money!]

27)[line 53]הן הן דמיו משעה ראשונה- these [coins] are [the equivalent of] the wage owed to the guard to begin with

28)[line 54]פַּתָּחֵי אבנים- those who engrave stones

29a)[line 56]חוצבין- those who quarry stones

b)[line 56]סַתָּתִין- those who chisel and shape stones

30)[line 56]דימוֹס- row of stones [as part of a wall]

10b----------------------------------------10b

31)[line 1]פרה(PARAH ADUMAH)

(a)A Parah Adumah is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow which has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

32)[line 1]שעיר המשתלח(SA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH)

(a) On Yom ha'Kipurim, two goats identical in every way are led in front of the Kohen Gadol. As part of the service of the day, he casts a Goral (lot) to determine which of the goats will be the Sa'ir la'HaSh-m, and which the Sa'ir la'Azazel. The first is offered as a Korban, and its blood is sprinkled, in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; the other is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death. A strip of crimson wool was tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel. He who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei, and must subsequently immerse his body and clothing in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).

(c)The Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach symbolically carried with it all of the sins of Klal Yisrael; they were forgiven when it was pushed over the cliff. A companion piece of crimson wool remained behind near the Beis ha'Mikdash. When Klal Yisrael merited it, the wool would turn white as the Sa'ir went over the cliff to symbolize that they had been forgiven.

33)[line 1]לשון של זהורית- the piece of crimson wool (as well as the cedar branch and the hyssops) burned along with the Parah Adumah

34a)[line 3]כֶּבֶשׁ פרה- the ramp [built to transport] the Parah Adumah [from Har ha'Bayis to Har ha'Mishchah, where it was burned, to protect it from becoming Tamei]

b)[line 3]כֶּבֶשׁ שעיר המשתלח- the ramp [built to transport] the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach [from the Beis ha'Mikdash to Azazel, to protect it from those who harried it along its way in an attempt to hurry their atonement]

35)[line 4]אמת המים- the [upkeep of the] Amah wide and Amah deep channel of water which flowed through the Azarah

36)[line 4]חומות העיר ומגדלותיה- [the upkeep of] the wall surrounding Yerushalayim and its towers

37)[line 7]מותר שירי הלשכה- the money left over from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah [once the needs of Yerushalayim were seen to]

38a)[line 8]יֵינוֹת- wine

b)[line 8]שְמָנִים- oil

c)[line 8]סַלתּוֹת- flour. These are all ingredients of a Korban Minchah (see Background to 6:34), and Rebbi Yishmael maintains that Hekdesh would stock up on them to sell to those who required them.

39)[line 11]רִיקוּעֵי זהב ציפוי לבית קודש הקדשים- golden tiles which covered the walls and floor of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

40)[line 12]מותר הפירות- the Gemara will explain what this is referring to

41)[line 12]קַּיִץ המזבח(KAYITZ HA'MIZBE'ACH)

There were six Shofaros (coffers; see Background to 5:14) kept in the Mikdash, the contents of which are used to purchase Korbanos for "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach". Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach consists of Korbanos Olah that are offered upon the Mizbe'ach when it is not otherwise in use. (Rashi to Sukah 56a DH Kayitz explains that these offerings are called Kayitz since they are a "dessert" for the Mizbe'ach. Kayitz refers to cut figs, a common dessert.) These Korbanos are Korbenos Tzibur (communal offerings).

42)[line 13]כְּלֵי שָרֵת- vessels and utensils used in the service performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash

43)[line 18]בסלע- [enough to be purchased] with a Sela

44)[line 19]מצורע(METZORA)

(a) If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen.

(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.

(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.

(d)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields.

(e)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 59:5).

(f)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring three Korbanos to complete his Taharah. These Korbanos consist of two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, and the other is offered as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he cannot afford these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still necessary for his Asham.

(g)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham while the Log of oil rests upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of its blood is placed upon the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, some on his right thumb, and some on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for he who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah have the status of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor is only as Kadosh as Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora can put his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.

(h)After all of the Metzora's Korbanos are offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil into his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also placed upon the body of the Metzora, in all of the same places where the blood of the Asham had been previously placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed upon the head of the Metzora. The rest of the Log (which was not poured into the Kohen's hand) is given to the Kohanim; it must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah, as it has the status of Kodshei Kodashim (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 4:2-3).

45)[line 22]ואית דְמַפְקִין לישנא (לישנא אחרינא)- there are those who describe [the same amount of money differently]

46)[line 24]שחיטה, קבלה, זריקה- see Background to 6:55

47)[line 26]מבקרי מומי קדשים- those who check sanctified animals for invalidating blemishes

48)[line 28]מגיהי ספר העזרה- a) those scribes who would correct the Sefer Torah located in the Azarah [from which the Kohen Gadol read on Yom Kipur] (RITVA Moed Katan 18b); b) those scribes who would correct Sifrei Torah based upon the Sefer Torah located in the Azarah (perhaps this is the way Rashi to Kesuvos 106a understands our Gemara)

49)[line 32]האוֹרגוֹת בפרוכת- who weave the curtain [separating between the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim in the second Beis ha'Mikdash]

50)[line 33]בֶּדֶק הבית- funds of Hekdesh

51)[line 33]מה פָּלִיג (במאי פליגי)?- what logic is this argument based upon?

52)[line 35]רבי יהודה (גרוגרות) גדגדות- this is the name of an Amora

53)[line 36]קטרת(KETORES)

(a) Ketores is the incense offered on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was offered twice each day; in the morning when the Kohen cleaned out the lamps of the Menorah, and before evening when the Kohen lit the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:

1.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZARI ("Sraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf") - sap of the balsam tree

2.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZIPOREN ("Shecheles") - a kind of root/annual plant. Some identify this plant with a species of rock-rose, Cistus ladaniferus, which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a type of flower.

3.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of CHELBENAH - (a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant in Persia; (b) According to some, Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree

4.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of LEVONAH - frankincense or oliban; a gum resin from trees of Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter, nauseating taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned

5.16 Maneh (80 pounds) of MOR - myrrh

6.16 Maneh (80 pounds) KETZI'AH - cassia

7.16 Maneh (80 pounds) SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard

8.16 Maneh (80 pounds) KARKOM - saffron

9.12 Maneh (60 pounds) KOSHT - costus

10.3 Maneh (15 pounds) KILUFAH - cinnamon bark

11.9 Maneh (45 pounds) KINAMON - cinnamon

(b)In addition, the following ingredients were added as incinerating agents:

1.1 Kav (9 quarts) of BORIS KARSHINAH - vetch lye

2.3 Se'ah and 3 Kavim (21 quarts) of YEIN KAFRISIN - (a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; (b) alt., wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. If Yein Kafrisin was not available the Ketores was compounded instead with CHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK - ancient strong white wine

3.One quarter Kav (1 cup) of MELACH SEDOMIS - Sodomite salt

4.A small amount of MA'ALEH ASHAN - probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica, which caused the smoke to rise straight up (due to the nitric acid it contains)

(c)Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden (probably cyclamen) was added as well.

54a)[line 37]מזבח הזהב- the golden alter, located in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash, upon which the Ketores was offered. It is movable and therefore classified as Klei shares.

b)[line 38]מזבח העולה- the large alter located in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, upon which the Korbanos were offered. It is immovable and therefore classified as part of the building of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

55a)[line 38]ההיכל- The area of the Beis ha'Mikdash which housed the Shulchan, the Menorah, and Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores; otherwise known as the Kodesh.

b)[line 39]והעזרות- The Ezras Kohanim, Ezras Yisrael, and Ezras Nashim; these made up most of the rest of the building of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

56)[line 41]מועלין בהן(ME'ILAH)

(a)It is forbidden to derive any personal benefit from that which is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol bi'Sh'arecha... v'Chol Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount of benefit for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth.

(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he is liable to receive Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable for Misah b'Yedei Shamayim). In addition, he must pay Hekdesh for the benefit which he received; however, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.

(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, he must bring a Korban known as a Korban Me'ilah. He must then reimburse Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, equal to a quarter of the original value). The object then loses its Kedushah. This is true of any object which has the status of Kedushas Damim (i.e. it itself will not be used by Hekdesh, but rather its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object which has the status of Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live animal pledged to be offered as a Korban) does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).

57)[line 42]מועלין בשיריים

See Background to 5:44.

58)[line 44]והכא חוץ לשנתו אנן קיימין- The Gemara does not answer this question. The Talmid Shel Rav Shmuel ben Shneur suggests that one of two answers is implied by the Gemara: a) the Me'ilah discussed here is only mid'Rabanan; b) only the buildings under discussion were built with Shekalim from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah in the year in which they were brought does one transgress the prohibition against Me'ilah - but this holds true even if he does so many years later.

59)[line 45]שֻלְחָן- the table located in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash, upon which the Lechem ha'Panim (see Background to 9:68) were stacked

60)[line 45]מנורה- the golden seven-branched candelabra located in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash

61)[line 46]מעכבין את הקרבנות- prevent Korbanos from being offered [if they are not in their proper places]

62)[line 48]הכיור וְהַכֵּן- the washbasin located in the Azarah and its base

63)[line 49]כל הן (כל היכא)- wherever

64)[line 49]"[ואת המנורה] נוֹכַח [השלחן]"- "and the Menorah opposite the Shulchan" (Shemos 26:35)

65)[line 50]"[והשלחן תִּתֵּן על] צֶלַע [צָפוֹן]"- "and the Shulchan place on the northern side" (Shemos 26:35)

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