[6a - 59 lines; 6b - 37 lines]
We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.
 גמרא ו. [שורה 23]
אם באומר שאביא מהן חטאתי כל עמא מודיי שהמותר חולין
הגר"א ל"ג לכל זה.
 גמרא ו: [שורה 47]
נעשו כשוחטו לשמו ושלא לשמו בשתיקה
נעשו כשוחטו שלא לשמו בשתיקה
(הגר"א ל"ג תיבות לשמו ו)
 תקלין חדתין ו: ד"ה משתנה למחשבת
(הפי' שכתב התקלין חדתין כאן לכאורה אינו מתאים לפירושו במסקנת הסוגיא)
 תקלין חדתין ו: ד"ה ופריך אם כן
ואמר לזרוק נמי
צ"ל ואמר לזרוק דמו
1)[line 1]הַמְכַנֵס מעות- one who gathers coins [of small denominations, bit by bit]
2a)[line 3]מותרן- [if, after he counts them, there are] extra
b)[line 3]נדבה- it is Kodesh, and goes toward the purchase of Olos Nidvos Tzibur; see Background to Shekalim 5:8.
3)[line 4]שוין- they agree
4)[line 7]קִּצְבָה- a set value
5)[line 9]הגולה- the exile of Bavel, from which Klal Yisrael were led by Ezra and Nechemyah
6)[line 9]היו שוקלין דַרכּוֹנוֹת- the nation would donate half-Darkonos in fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel. Darkonos (Darkemons), the basic monetary unit in use at the time of Ezra and Nechemyah, were golden Median coins (mentioned in Ezra 2:69) which had the value of (a) two Sela'im (RAMBAM Shekalim 1:3); (b) one and one half Sela'im (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:12). The Greek called it a Daric (Tiferes Yisrael), related to the Darics, a Persian gold and silver coin.
b)[line 10]חזרו לשקול סלעים- they subsequently donated half-Sela'im [when Sela'im became the basic monetary unit] (see Background to 4:2, and chart following entry #17 below)
c)[line 10]חזרו לשקול טִבְעִין- they subsequently donated [coins equal to half of a Sela, called] Tiv'in [when Tiv'in became the basic monetary unit]
d)[line 11]בקשו לשקול דִינְרִין- (a) they wanted to use Dinarim - coins equal to a quarter of a Sela - in fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel [when Dinarim became the basic monetary unit] (most Rishonim); (b) they wanted to introduce Dinarim as the basic monetary unit of the country [but the people objected] (RAMBAM in Peirush ha'Mishnayos)
7)[line 14]מה פליגין (= כי פליגי)- when do they argue?
8)[line 15]פְּרוֹטְרוֹט- one coin at a time
9)[line 15]אֵלוּ לְשִקְּלִי- these [handful of coins] are designated as my Machatzis ha'Shekel
10)[line 15]כָּל עַמָא מוֹדיי (= כולי עלמא מודה)- everyone agrees
11)[line 21]מה אַנָן קַיימִין? (= במאי אסקינן)- with what are we dealing?
12)[line 24]כן אנן קיימין (= הכא במאי אסקינן)- here we are dealing with
13)[line 35]נשמענה מן הדא ( = תא שמע)- let us derive it from here
14a)[line 40]וכא ( = והכא)- and here
b)[line 40]היאך אומר אתה אלו- (a) how can you say [that] these [second set of coins are Kodesh]? If the extra money in a handful of coins designated as the Machatzis ha'Shekel are Chulin (as many ruled above), then certainly these, which were designated mistakenly, are Chulin! (Korban ha'Edah); (b) according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON, this is not a question, but a statement: The status of the second Shekel designated in such a situation is dependant upon the Machlokes mentioned at the start of our Gemara. If the extra money in a handful of coins designated as the Machatzis ha'Shekel are Chulin, so is the second Shekel; if the extra there is Kodesh, then the same applies to the second Shekel in this case.
15)[line 41]דרכונות, דינרין- Darkonos were [golden, like] Dinarim
16)[line 42]כשמוען (= כמשמען)- as they sound; i.e., these were the same Sela'im in use at the time of the Gemara
17)[line 43]קְרָטִין- quarters [of a Sela] (THE EQUIVALENCIES OF A SELA)
2/3 Darkon = 1 Sela (= 1 Shekel mentioned in the Torah)
(This follows the view of the RAMBAN. According to the RAMBAM, 1/2 Darkon = 1 Sela)
2 Tiv'in = 1 Sela
2 Shekalim of the Mishnah (or the Machatzis ha'Shekel mentioned in the Torah) = 1 Sela
4 Dinarim/Keratin = 1 Sela
24 Me'ah/Gerah = 1 Sela
(This refers to the Gerah of the Mishnah and Gemara, following the inflation of the Dinar to six Gerah/Me'ah. The Torah (Shemos 30:13) describes a Shekel as containing 20 Gerah, since at that time there were only 5 Gerah per Dinar.)
18)[line 43]מִן הַדָא- [which can be derived] from this [following verse]
19)[line 43]"והעמדנו עלינו מִצְוֹת לתת [עלינו] שלישית השקל בשנה לעבודת בית אלוקינו"- "We also instituted commandments upon ourselves to give one third of a Shekel yearly toward the service of the house of our G-d." (Nechemyah 10:33) (RAISING THE VALUE OF THE HALF-SHEKEL)
(a)Those who returned from Galus Bavel took upon themselves to strengthen their commitment to Torah and Mitzvos, among them the Mitzvos of Shabbos and Shemitah. This verse relates the people's renewal of the commitment to the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel.
(b)Our Gemara understands from the wording in this verse that the people desired to give less than the standard half-Shekel, and the leaders at the time were required to step in and disallow such an action. As they were in the midst of a strengthening in observance, it was not that the people wished to wriggle out of this Mitzvah; rather, they reasoned that just as the Machatzis ha'Shekel rose when the Matbe'a ha'Yotzei was worth more than a Shekel; so too it could fall when the Matbe'a ha'Yotzei was worth less than a Shekel. At this point the basic currency unit was a Dinar, 1/4 of a Shekel, and this is what they desired to donate annually.
(c)The leaders ruled that they must give one third of a Shekel. The MALBIM, citing the verse in Melachim I (7:26), explains that the Shekel had just appreciated so that one third of the current Shekel at the time was the equivalent of a Torah half-Shekel.
20)[line 46]לשלש שקלו שלש פעמים בשנה- to divide his Shekel (that is, the money he donates to charity) into thirds, to be spread out over the course of the year
21)[line 47]מטריחין על הציבור- prevail upon the public [to donate to charity]
22)[line 48]ג' סְאִין ... שלש קוּפּוֹת ... ג' הפרשות- see Background to 2:11:b
23)[line 50]לפי שחטאו במחצית היום- since they sinned [with the Egel ha'Zahav] at midday. The Torah, in describing how Bnei Yisrael fell victim to the Yetzer ha'Ra, writes, "va'Yar ha'Am Ki Voshesh Moshe la'Redes Min ha'Har" - "And the nation saw that Moshe was delayed in coming down from the mountain" (Shemos 32:1). The Gemara (Shabbos 89a) understands that the word "Voshesh" ("delayed") can be read as "Ba Shesh" ("the sixth hour had arrived").
24)[line 52]שִיתָא גְרַמָסִין- six Geramasin. The Gerama was a coin that existed in the times of Moshe Rabeinu which was worth one sixth of a half-Shekel. The Tiklin Chadtin explains that the first opinion maintains that the main characterization of the Machatzis ha'Shekel is that it be half, even if it is half of the Matbe'a ha'Yotzei and not a half-Shekel. This opinion asserts that its main characterization is that it be one half-Shekel, since that is equal to the value of six Geramasin.
25)[line 54]עשרה גֵרָה- ten Gerah, which are equivalent to one half-Shekel (see the second note to the chart following entry #17 above)
26)[line 56]עשרים כסף- the Shevatim sold Yosef for twenty silver pieces (Bereishis 37:28)
27)[line 57]פודה את בנו בכורו בעשרים כסף(PIDYON HA'BEN)
(a)The Torah requires every Yisrael to sanctify his own firstborn male child, as well as those born to his Kosher animals and donkeys. This is stated as, "Kadesh Li Kol Bechor, Peter Kol Rechem bi'Vnei Yisrael; ba'Adam uva'Behemah, Li Hu" - "Sanctify to Me every firstborn who opens the womb among the children of Yisrael; of both man and beast, he is Mine" (Shemos 13:2). Only a Yisrael must sanctify his firstborn son; this Mitzvah does not apply to a Kohen or a Levi.
(b)A boy who is first-born to his mother must be redeemed by his father. The Mitzvah to redeem one's son is called "Pidyon ha'Ben," and is derived from the verse which states, "v'Chol Bechor Adam b'Vanecha Tifdeh" (Shemos 13:13). A Bechor is redeemed when he is one month old. Five silver Shekalim, each of which weighs 22.8 grams / 0.8 ounces, are given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:16). Our Gemara refers to these five Shekalim as "twenty silver coins;" this is a reference to Dinarim, four of which are equivalent to one Sela (which is equal to the Shekel of the Torah). If one's mother is not the daughter of a Kohen or a Levi, if she had a stillbirth prior to his birth, or if he was delivered through Caesarian section, the Mitzvah of Pidyon ha'Ben does not apply to him (Sefer ha'Chinuch #392).
(c)A number of reasons are offered in explanation of this Mitzvah. One is that performing a Mitzvah with the first efforts of one's toil, which are generally particularly dear to him, helps him come to the realization that everything in the world belongs to HaSh-m. (This idea is expressed in the Mitzvah of Bikurim [see Background to 53:16] as well.) Another reason given for this Mitzvah is that it serves as a remembrance of the great miracle that HaSh-m performed on our behalf when he killed every firstborn male in Egypt (Sefer ha'Chinuch #18).
28)[line 58]לכל אחד ואחד מהם- to every one of them. Ten of the sons of Yakov were liable for the sale of Yosef. The VILNA GA'ON explains that Reuven and Binyamin were not involved in the sale. Yosef himself was one of those held culpable, due to his actions that led his brothers to loathe him.
29)[last line]טִבְעָה- a coin worth one half-Shekel; see above, entry #6c
30)[line 1]מותר שקלים חולין- this follows the opinion of Beis Hillel stated in the previous Mishnah (6a; Gemara ad. loc.)
31)[line 2]עשירית האיפה- this refers to one of two Korbanos; the Gemara will discuss which one is referred to here.
32)[line 2]קני זבין קני זבות קני יולדות חטאות ואשמות- see Background to 3:80-83
33)[line 4]נדבה- see above, entry #2b
(a)A Korban Minchah is a flour offering. When an individual who is not a Kohen offers a Korban Minchah, a Kohen must take off a Kometz (handful), which is burned upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The remainder of the Minchah (the Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah, since the Korban Minchah is in the category of Korbanos known as Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Zevachim 104:29). The Sheyarei ha'Minchah must be consumed by the Kohanim prior to the following sunrise (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7).
(b)A Kometz is the amount that can be held by the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm. The Kohen puts his hand in the dough or baked goods and removes one handful. Using the thumb and smallest finger of the same hand, he next wipes off the dough or baked goods that stick out, until only the Kometz remains.
(c)Kemitzah is only performed when a Minchah is brought by a non-Kohen. A Minchah offered by a Kohen is entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
(d)A Kometz of Levonah (frankincense or oliban, a gum resin from trees of present-day Arabia and India) is placed on top of most Menachos, which is later offered upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(e)All Korbanos may be offered jointly by more than one person, with the exception of the Korbenos Minchah. This is due to the verse which states, "v'Nefesh Ki Sakriv Korban Minchah..." - "And when a soul (singular) will offer a flour offering..." (Vayikra 2:1; Menachos 104b).
(f)The Torah describes thirteen distinct varieties of Minchah; see Background to Menachos 2:1.
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAMandRA'AVADHilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (right hind thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban ("Eimurim") are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The Eimurim consist of: 1. the layer of fat covering the stomachs; 2. all other fat attached to the stomachs; 3. the two kidneys; 4. the fat on the kidneys; 5. The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
(d)The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night. The Beraisa brought in our Gemara details the source for the prohibition to eat it on the second night.
36)[line 6]מותר הפסח(MOSAR HA'PESACH)
(a)When the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing, every adult Jew is obligated to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as the Torah commands, "And the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening" (Shemos 12:6).
(b)The Korban Pesach consists of an unblemished male lamb or goat between eight days and one year old. The Korban is roasted in its entirety, and is consumed after nightfall. There are many Halachos specific to the Korban Pesach, which are discussed in Pesachim, Perakim 5-9 (see also introduction to Insights to Pesachim, available in the printed version).
(c)An animal designated as a Korban Pesach that was not offered as such for any reason (e.g. it was lost on the fourteenth of Nisan) is termed a "Mosar ha'Pesach." Such an animal may be offered at any time as a Korban Shelamim. A Mosar ha'Pesach is identical to a Shelamim other than that which it may be eaten for only one day and the following night, as opposed to the two days and intervening night allowed for a regular Korban Shelamim.
(d)Some opinions maintain that before one may offer a Mosar ha'Pesach as a Korban Shelamim, it requires an Akirah - an active uprooting of its status (TOSFOS to Pesachim 60b DH b'She'ar; see Background to Pesachim 64:2). According to these authorities, if the animal is slaughtered without an Akirah, it is still a Pesach and therefore invalid since it was not slaughtered at the proper time for a Korban Pesach (see Pesachim 60b). The offering of a Mosar ha'Pesach "she'Lo Lishmo" - with intent that it be a regular Shelamim or Olah - is enough to qualify as an Akirah.
(e)The term "Mosar ha'Pesach" may also apply to money that was sanctified for the purpose of purchasing a sheep or goat for a Korban Pesach. If the value of the animal subsequently depreciated, then the leftover money is designated "Mosar ha'Pesach" and should go toward the purchase of a Korban Shelamim.
37)[line 7]מותר נזירים- money left over from that which was collected to fund the Korbanos of more than one Nazir
(a)If a person vows to be a Nazir without stipulating how long he wishes his vow to be in effect, he becomes a Nazir for a period of thirty days. During this time, he may not: (1) cut his hair; (2) become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or (3) consume any product of a grapevine. If he specifies a period of time for which he wishes his vow to be in effect, then he must follow these regulations for the time period specified.
(b)Upon the completion of his period of Nezirus, a Nazir offers three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour) which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves all of his hair and burns it in the fire underneath the pot in which the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18).
39a)[line 8]עד דאַנָא תַּמָן- while I was still there [in Bavel]
b)[line 8]שַמְעִית קָל רב יהודה- I heard the voice of Rav Yehudah
40)[line 10]עשירית האיפה שלו(CHAVISEI KOHEN GADOL)
The Kohen Gadol offers a daily Minchah (see above, entry #34) consisting of one-tenth of an Eifah of wheat flour. The dough is formed into twelve rolls that are boiled, baked, and then fried in olive oil in a flat pan. Six of these rolls are burned on the Mizbe'ach in the morning, and the remaining half towards evening (Vayikra 6:12).
41)[line 15]עשירית האיפה של מנחת חוטא(KORBAN OLEH V'YORED)
(a)One is obligated to offer a Korban Oleh v'Yored (a sacrifice whose value is set on a sliding scale) in three cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2) and Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1).
(b)What the Korban Oleh v'Yored consists of varies depends upon the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he must offer a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford a sheep, he must offer a pair of turtledoves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford a pair of birds, he may offer one-tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus) (Vayikra 5:6-13).
(c)The Minchas Chatas is not mixed with oil, nor is Levonah (frankincense) sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11).
42)[line 17]על דָא עַלִיל אבא בר בא- Aba Bar Aba (father of Shmuel) asked me about this (the following statement)
43)[line 17]אִינוּן אַמרִין (= הם אומרים)- the Chachamim of Bavel say
44)[line 18]משתנין- transforms; see above, entry #36
45)[line 20]הֵיתֵיבוּן- he asked
46)[line 20]עולה(KORBAN OLAH)
(a)An Olah sacrifice is one that is burned in its entirety upon the Mizbe'ach. Under certain circumstances one is required to bring a specific animal or a Minchah (see above, entry #34) as an Olah; voluntary Olos may be offered as well.
(b)An animal offered as a Korban Olah must be burned on the same day that it is slaughtered.
47)[line 23]מכל הצאן- from anything referred to as "Tzon"; that is, both sheep and goats
48)[line 25]אתר (= מקום)- place
49)[line 27]שאינו בא- for [the Korban Pesach] may not consist of... (see above, entry #36:b). The VILNA GA'ON explains that that which the verse is referring to a Korban which may consist of anything called "Tzon" is derived from the added letter "Heh" in "ha'Tzon."
50)[line 32]משנין- [it is reasonable to assume that] we can transform
51)[line 34]קדשים קלים / קדשי קדשים(KODSHIM KALIM / KODSHEI KODASHIM)
(a)The category of Kodshim Kalim - "light" Korbanos - includes Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Ma'asar Behemah, Pesach and Bechor. These may be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah, and may afterwards be eaten anywhere in Yerushalayim by any member of Klal Yisrael, men and women, as long as they are Tahor.
(b)The category of Kodshei Kodashim - especially consecrated Korbanos - includes Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham, as well as Menachos. These may be slaughtered only in the northern part of the Azarah, and those parts of these Korbanos which may be consumed may be eaten only in the Azarah, and only by Kohanim.
52)[line 40]כל שהוא זבח- the word "Zevach" is extraneous, as the verse could just as easily have been written, "... l'Shelamim."
53)[line 40]ומשתנה למחשבת פסול?- [if one slaughters a Korban Pesach intending for it to be an invalid Korban Olah,] will it be transformed by this invalidating intention? (See Insights to the Daf for the ways in which various Rishonim interpret the Gemara's question and subsequent explanation of this question.)
54)[line 41]הֵיך עַבִידָא? (היכי דמי?)- how is this?
55)[line 42]לזרוק דמה(ARBA AVODOS)
The offering of a Korban consists of four primary actions. These four Avodos are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the lifeblood of the Korban in a vessel), Holachah (bringing the blood to the Mizbe'ach), and Zerikah (dashing the blood upon the Mizbe'ach).
56)[line 42]מכל מקום פסול הוא- whether it has become a Shelamim or not it is invalidated [since one may not perform the Zerikah of a Shelamim on the day following is slaughter either]
57)[line 43]אִין תֵּימַר (= אי נימא)- if you say
(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. Such a Korban may not be eaten, as the Torah states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh- "If [the person offering the Korban plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid; rejected), and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).
(b)If a person intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Pigul he is Chayav Kares; if he eats it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144)
59)[line 45]לשמו ושלא לשמו בשאר ימות השנה- [if one slaughtered an animal designated as a Korban Pesach] prior to the fourteenth of Nisan [first] saying that it should be a Korban Pesach (which renders it Pasul) and [then] saying that it should not (in a manner which renders it a Shelamim)
60a)[line 47]מכיון שאין לא שם- (a) since it has no automatic designation [since it is too early for a Pesach and it was not designated as a Shelamim] (Korban ha'Edah); (b) according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON: מכיון שאמר שלא לשמו - since he designated it as a Shelamim at the end (Tiklin Chadtin)
b) נעשה כשוחטו ... בשתיקה- (a) it is as if he had said nothing (and an animal designated as a Korban Pesach slaughtered prior to Pesach with no specific designation is a Kosher Shelamim; Korban ha'Edah); (b) it is as if he had said nothing at the beginning [but only that it should not be a Korban Pesach at the end, which renders it a Shelamim] (Had it received no specific designation, however, it would not be a Kosher Shelamim; Tiklin Chadtin)
61)[line 52]מה נאמר ...- (a) who says that the original assumption that a Korban Pesach slaughtered prior to Pesach with no specific designation is a Kosher Shelamim is correct? (Korban ha'Edah); (b) according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON: מנ"ל בשתיקה כשר? דילמא ... - who says that one can compare a case in which one changed his mind within one Avodah (the Shechitah) to one in which an entire Avodah was performed in a manner which invalidates the Korban? (Tiklin Chadtin)