Kollel Iyun Hadaf

prepared by Yaakov Montrose of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld


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תוספות ד"ה כאן קודם גזר דין

(SUMMARY: Tosfos observes that a different answer is given by the Gemara in Berachos.)

בפרק בתרא דנדה (דף ע: ושם) משני נמי הכי

(a) Observation: The Gemara in Nidah (70b) gives the same answer.

והוה מצי לשנויי כדאמר להו קב"ה למלאכי השרת בפ' מי שמתו (ברכות דף כ:) ולא אשא פנים לישראל אני אמרתי ואכלת ושבעת וברכת והם דקדקו עד כזית עד כביצה

(b) Implied Question: The Gemara could have given the answer given by the Gemara in Berachos (20b) that although Hash-m does not normally favor certain people, how can He not favor Bnei Yisrael who despite being commanded to say Birkas ha’Mazon only if they are satiated (from bread), insist on saying Birkas ha’Mazon even if they eat only one k’Zayis or k’Beitzah of bread? (Why didn’t our Gemara give this answer?)

ומיהו גם זה אמת שאף לישראל אינו נושא פנים אלא קודם גזר דין

(c) Answer: However, the answer in our Gemara is also a valid answer, that Hash-m only favors Bnei Yisrael before he makes a decree. (There is no preference in which answer should be given, as both are valid.)


תוספות ד"ה רבה ואביי

(SUMMARY: Tosfos points out that the text in our Gemara should read “Rabah” and not “Rava.”)

רבא חבירו של אביי לא הוה כהן כדמוכח בפ' הזרוע (חולין דף קלג.) והכא רבה חבירו של רב חסדא

(a) Opinion: The correct text of our Gemara is Rabah, as Abaye’s contemporary, Rava, was not a Kohen (see Chulin 133a). Our Gemara is referring to Rabah the contemporary of Rav Chisda.

וכן משמע נמי בפרק בתרא דמו"ק (דף כח. ושם) דאמר רבא חיי בני ומזוני לא בזכותא תליא מילתא אלא במזלא תליא מילתא דהא רבה ורב חסדא תרוייהו צדיקים גמורים הוו מר מצלי ואתי מיטרא ומר מצלי ואתי מיטרא רבה חיה ארבעין שנין ורב חסדא חיה תשעין שנין

1. Proof: This is clear from Rava’s statement in Moed Katan (28a), that years of life, children, and one’s livelihood is not dependent on merit but rather on “Mazal.” Rava there continues that this is apparent, as Rabah and Rav Chisda were both completely righteous and were therefore able to bring rain through their prayers (in times where rain was needed), yet Rabah only lived for forty years while Rav Chisda lived for ninety-two years.

וא"ת מנא ליה דמשום מזלא הוה דלמא משום דרבה אתא מדבית עלי

(b) Question: How did Rava know that Rabah died early due to bad “Mazal?” Perhaps it was because he was descended from the House of Eli?

וי"ל דאפ"ה אי לאו מזלא הוה מגין עליו זכות תורה

(c) Answer: Even so, were it not for his bad Mazal the great merit of his Torah learning would have lengthened his life.

וא"ת דהכא משמע דרבה לא היה לו זכות של גמילות חסדים והא אמרינן בפ' חלק (סנהדרין דף צח:) אמר ליה אביי לרבה מר הא תורה הא גמילות חסדים

(d) Question: Our Gemara implies that Rabah did not have the merit of doing Chesed. However, the Gemara in Sanhedrin (98b) says that Abaye told Rabah he has the merit of both Toraha Chesed!

וי"ל דמ"מ אביי עסק טפי מיניה

(e) Answer: Abaye did more Chesed than Rabah.


תוספות ד"ה על ניסן

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why Beis Din did not send messengers out to tell people when Shevuos was going to be.)

אבל על סיון מפני עצרת לא צריך דבעומר הדבר תלוי

(a) Observation: They did not send messengers for the month of Sivan to inform people when Shevuos was because this was dependent on when the Omer was brought.

כדאמרי' לעיל (דף ו:) דתני רב שמעיה עצרת פעמים חמשה פעמים ששה פעמים שבעה

1. Proof: This is as the Gemara stated earlier that Rav Shamayah taught that sometimes Shevuos is on the fifth (of Sivan), sometimes it is on the sixth, and sometimes it is on the seventh (depending on whether Iyar and Sivan were Chaser or Malei in the days when this was determined by witnesses).


תוספות ד"ה ועל אלול

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why it was important to inform people of the exact date of Rosh Chodesh Elul.)

מודיעים מתי מתחיל אלול ועושין ר"ה ביום שלשים לאלול בגולה וגם למחרתו

(a) Explanation: They inform them when Elul started, and they make Rosh Hashanah on the thirtieth day of Elul and the following day outside Eretz Yisrael.

כדמשמע בפ"ק דביצה (דף ה.) ובפ' בכל מערבין (עירובין דף לט. ושם) שהיו עושין שני ימים טובים של ר"ה מספק דלמא עברוה לאלול

1. Proof: This is as implied in Beitzah (5a) an Eruvin (39a) that they used to make two days of Rosh Hashanah due to the doubt of whether Elul was made into a leap month.

מ"מ אם לא ידעו מתי מתחיל אלול לא ידעו יום שלשים

2. Explanation (cont.): If people would not know when Elul started, they would not know when the thirtieth day of Elul would be.



תוספות ד"ה הואיל

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why the ninth of Av is worse than the seventeenth of Tamuz.)

ביום שבעה עשר בתמוז נמי אירע חמשה דברים כדתנן בפרק בתרא דתענית (דף כו.)

(a) Implied Question: Five bad things happened on the seventeenth of Tamuz as well, as stated in the Mishnah in Tanis (26a). (Why is the ninth of Av deemed worse than the seventeenth of Tamuz?)

אבל חורבן בית המקדש תקיפא טובא

(b) Answer #1: However, the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash was much worse (than these things).

ועוד לא דמי לט' באב דצרה אחת הוכפלה בו

(c) Answer #2: Additionally, it is incomparable to the ninth of Av, as the same tragedy (destruction of the Beis Hamikdash) happened twice (Bayis Rishon and Bayis Sheini) on that same day.


תוספות ד"ה זה תשעה בתמוז

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains that the Bavli and Yerushalmi argue regarding when the walls of the first Beis Hamikdash were breached.)

היינו בראשונה אבל בשניה הובקעה בי"ז ומשום הכי עבדינן בי"ז תענית

(a) Explanation: This is referring to the first Beis Hamikdash. However, the second Beis Hamikdash was breached on the seventeenth of Tamuz, which is why we make the seventeenth a fast day.

והך ברייתא מתנינן בירושלמי וגרסי' בה י"ז בתמוז

(b) Observation: This same Beraisa is quoted in the Yerushalmi, but it instead says that the first Beis Hamikdash was also breached on the seventeenth of Tamuz.

ואף על גב דכתיב בקרא בתשעה לחדש

1. Implied Question: This is despite the fact that the Pasuk explicitly states that it happened on the ninth of Tamuz. (How can the Yerushalmi contradict a Pasuk?)

קלקול חשבונות היו שם ופליג אש"ס דידן ורוצה לומר דמתוך טרדתם טעו בחשבונם ולא רצה הפסוק לשנות מכמו שהיו סבורים

2. Answer: The Yerushalmi understands that the people were confused as to the correct date, and it therefore argues on our Gemara. This means that since they were very bothered by the events they made a mistake afterwards in recalling when the walls were breached, and the Pasuk did not want to change its date from what the people afterwards thought (that it had been on the ninth).


תוספות ד"ה זה תשעה באב

(SUMMARY: Tosfos notes that the enemies entered the Heichal on the seventh, lit the fire on the ninth, and it burned until the end of the tenth.)

בפרק בתרא דתענית (דף כט.) רמי קראי אהדדי דבסוף מלכים כתיב דנשרף בשבעה ובספר ירמיה כתיב בעשור לחדש וישרוף וגו' ומשני דבז' לחדש נכנסו אויבים להיכל ואכלו ושתו בו [שביעי] שמיני ותשיעי עד שפנה היום לעתותי ערב הציתו בו האש ונשרף עד שקיעת החמה בעשור

(a) Observation: The Gemara in Tanis (29a) asks that the Pesukim seem to contradict each other. At the end of Melachim the Pasuk states that it was burned on the seventh of Av, while in Yirmiyah it says it was on the tenth of Av. The Gemara answers that the enemies entered the Heichal, ate, and drank for three days. On (the second half of) the ninth of Av towards evening they lit the fire, and it burned until sunset on the tenth of Av.


תוספות ד"ה וירד

(SUMMARY: Tosfos explains why the Mishnah regarding Chanukah was not quoted.)

ממתני' דעל כסליו מפני חנוכה לא הוה ליה לאקשויי

(a) Implied Question: The Gemara could not have asked from the Mishnah that states they used to send messengers to state when Rosh Chodesh Kislev was due to Chanukah. (Why isn’t this proof that it was considered a Yom Tov?)

דלעולם לא חשיב יום טוב ואפילו הכי מדליקין נרות זכר לנס

(b) Answer: This is because it was not really considered a Yom Tov, and even so (the messengers are sent to ascertain that) we light candles to remember the miracle.


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