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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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ROSH HASHANAH 34 - Dedicated by Andy & Nancy Neff in memory of Leah Miriam bat Yisroel -- Lucy Rabin, beloved wife of Sidney Rabin and mother of Nancy Neff and Valerie, Doug and Andy Rabin, who passed away on 14 Sivan 5767.

1) THE FORM AND MAKE-UP OF THE BLASTS (cont.)

(a) Question: How do we know that the threefold Teki'ah-Teru'ah-Teki'ah should be blown three times?

(b) Answer: Three Pesukim mention Teru'ah (and we know that Teru'ah is always preceded and followed by Teki'ah).

(c) Question: One of these Pesukim refers to Yovel, and the other two refer to Rosh Hashanah - how do we know to apply them to each other?

(d) Answer: The Torah says the phrase "seventh month" in both contexts to make a Gezerah Shaveh.

(e) Thus, the Shofar is blown in three sets which consist of a total of nine blasts; the length of a Teki'ah is like a Teru'ah, and the length of a Teru'ah is like three Shevarim.

(f) Question: Originally, the Tana linked the laws of Rosh Hashanah and Yovel by means of a Hekesh (7d on previous Daf), yet he now uses a Gezerah Shaveh!?

(g) Answer: He means that were it not for the Gezerah Shaveh, he would have used the Hekesh, but now that he has a Gezerah Shaveh, the Hekesh is not needed.

2) AN ALTERNATE SOURCE: THE WILDERNESS

(a) Another Tana learns that the Teru'ah is preceded and followed by a Teki'ah from the description of the wilderness encampment:

(b) "u'Tekaatem Teru'ah" is an instruction for a separate Teki'ah and Teru'ah.

1. Question: Perhaps it refers to blowing a single Teru'ah?

2. Answer: A later Pasuk speaks of there being a Teki'ah without a Teru'ah, so this Pasuk must mean that both are present.

(c) Question: How do we know that the Teki'ah precedes the Teru'ah?

(d) Answer: Because "u'Tekaatem" precedes "Teru'ah."

(e) Question: How do we know that a Teki'ah follows the Teru'ah?

(f) Answer: Because another Pasuk says "Teru'ah" and then "Yiska'u."

(g) (R. Yishmael): A simpler source is that it superfluously says that "u'Tekaatem Teru'ah for a second time," teaching us that a Teki'ah is always sounded after a Teru'ah.

1. Question: That was only said in reference to the desert encampment; how do we know to apply it to Rosh Hashanah?

2. Answer: We link them with a Gezerah Shaveh from the words "Teru'ah" in each context.

3. Three Teru'os are mentioned in the context of Rosh Hashanah, each accompanied by two Teki'os, resulting in three Teru'os and six Teki'os; two from the Torah, and one from the Rabanan (as the third Pasuk is used for the Gezerah Shaveh.)

(h) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Two are from the Rabanan, as another Pasuk is needed to teach us that it may only be sounded by day.

1. R. Yishmael learns that from "Yom ha'Kipurim."

2. Question: If he is learning from the Yom Kipur of Yovel, why doesn't he also learn the Teki'os preceding and following the Teru'os from there?

3. Answer: As he doesn't feel that the word "ve'Haavarta" indicates a Teki'ah.

i. He uses it instead to teach us that the Shofar must be used in the form that the animal carries it (and not inverted); and he uses the word "Taaviru" to teach that the Shofar must be carried by hand.

ii. The other opinion feels that since the Torah used the unusual term "Taaviru," it must be like the other usage of that term which refers to sound.

(i) Question: If it is being learned from the wilderness encampment, perhaps it refers to trumpets, as was the case there?

(j) Answer: The Pasuk says that the Shofar should be blown on the festival when the moon is covered i.e. Rosh Hashanah.

3) R. AVAHU'S ORDER

(a) R. Avahu decreed in Kisari that Teki'ah, three Shevarim, Teru'ah, then Teki'ah should be blown.

(b) Question: If Yevava (the translation of Yom Teru'ah) means whimpering, then it should be Teki'ah-Teru'ah-Teki'ah, and if it means moaning, then it should be Teki'ah-Shevarim-Teki'ah?

(c) He was in doubt as to which it meant.

(d) Question: If it does mean whimpering, then the Shevarim is interrupting between the Teki'ah and the Teru'ah!?

(e) Answer: He must therefore also sound a Teki'ah-Teru'ah-Teki'ah.

(f) Question: If it does mean moaning, then the Teru'ah is interrupting between the Shevarim and the Teki'ah!?

(g) Answer: He must therefore also sound a Teki'ah-Shevarim-Teki'ah.

(h) Question: If he is anyway doing both these versions, what was the point of instituting Teki'ah-Shevarim-Teru'ah-Teki'ah?

(i) Answer: In case it Yevava means both moaning and whimpering.

1. Question: In that case he should also sound Teki'ah-Teru'ah-Shevarim-Teki'ah, in case it means whimpering followed by moaning?

2. Answer: The usual case is that when a person is upset he first moans and then whimpers.

34b----------------------------------------34b

4) DELAYS DURING THE SHOFAR BLASTS

(a) (R. Yochanan): If he heard the nine blasts spread over nine hours of the day, he is Yotzei.

(b) A Beraisa confirms this:

1. If he heard the nine blasts spread over nine hours of the day, he is Yotzei.

2. If he heard them from nine people simultaneously, he is not Yotzei.

3. If he heard them from nine people sequentially, he is Yotzei.

4. This is true even if there were gaps between them, and even if they were spread over the entire day.

(c) Question: Surely R. Yochanan said that if, during the reading of Hallel or Megillah, there was a delay of a period of time adequate to finish it, he must start again?

(d) Answer: This was not his own opinion; he was citing R. Shimon ben Yehotzadak.

1. Question: But we see that he also held of it, as when R. Avahu paused during reciting Shema when passing dirty alleys, R. Yochanan told him that if the delay was long enough to finish it, he must begin again?

2. Answer: He meant to say "According to me, there was no need either to pause or to start again after a long pause; but according to you that both are true, the length of such a pause is the time that it would take to finish it."

(e) The trumpet blasts and Berachos of a fast day are not essential to each other.

1. The Shofar blasts and Berachos of Rosh Hashanah, and Yom Kipur of Yovel, are essential to each other.

2. The reason is that on Rosh Hashanah Hash-m instructs us to say Malchuyos to accept His sovereignty, Zichronos to raise a remembrance of us before Him, with the aid of the Shofar (Shofaros).

5) SHOFAR AND TEFILAH

(a) The Mishnah said that if one said Musaf and only then gained access to a Shofar, he should blow Teki'ah-Teru'ah-Teki'ah three times.

1. The implication is that if he did have a Shofar originally, he should hear it during Musaf.

(b) R. Papa bar Shmuel told his attendant that when he signals to him during his Amidah, he should blow the Shofar.

1. (Rava): Sounding the Shofar during the Amidah is only done with a congregation.

(c) A Beraisa supports Rava:

1. He should hear the Shofar blasts in the proper order, and during the order of the Berachos.

2. This is only true for a congregation, but an individual does not hear the Shofar during the Berachos.

3. An individual who did not blow Shofar can have someone else blow for him.

4. But an individual who did not recite the Amidah cannot have someone else recite it for him.

5. It is better to be with those who sound Shofar than to be with those who say Musaf - faced with a choice of two cities, one doing each, you should go to the city with Shofar.

i. Question: This is obvious - Shofar is d'Oraisa, and Musaf is d'Rabanan?

ii. Answer: It refers to a case where one city is definitely saying Musaf, and the other is only possibly sounding Shofar.

6) THE SHALI'ACH TZIBUR

(a) The Mishnah said that just as the Shali'ach Tzibur must say the prayer, so too must every individual; R. Gamliel said that the Shali'ach Tzibur is Yotzei for them.

(b) A Beraisa discusses this dispute:

1. They asked R. Gamliel: Why the congregation says a silent Amidah beforehand?

i. He answered: To give time for the Shali'ach Tzibur to prepare his Amidah.

2. He asked the Rabanan: What is the point of the Shali'ach Tzibur?

i. They answered: To be Motzi those who are unable to say the Amidah.

ii. He replied: So, too, he can be Motzi those who are able to say it.

(c) (Rabah bar bar Chanah citing R. Yochanan): The Rabanan conceded to R. Gamliel.

(d) (Rav): The dispute still stands.

1. The Gemara cites another instance of this debate.

(e) Question: Surely R. Yochanan has been cited as saying that the Halachah follows R. Gamliel, implying that there is a dispute!?

(f) Answer: The Rabanan only conceded with the prayers of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur of Yovel, but the dispute still stands regarding the prayers of the rest of the year.

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