1)CUTTING THE SHOFAR
(a)The Mishnah prohibited cutting it with something forbidden d'Rabanan - such as a sickle - or d'Oraisa - such as a knife.
1.Question: Why did the Mishnah need to prohibit the d'Oraisa when it has already prohibited the d'Rabanan?
2.Answer: The format is that "this, and needless to say this" is forbidden.
2)RINSING THE SHOFAR
(a)The Mishnah said that it can be rinsed with wine or water, excluding urine.
1.This follows the view of Aba Shaul who forbade this even on a weekday out of respect for the Shofar.
3)CHILDREN BLOWING SHOFAR
(a)The Mishnah said that we do not prevent children from blowing the Shofar - implying that we do prevent women from doing so.
1.Question: A Beraisa states that we do not prevent either women or children from blowing Shofar on Rosh Hashanah?
2.Answer: The Mishnah follows R. Yehudah, whereas the Beraisa follows R. Yosi and R. Shimon:
i.(Beraisa) (R. Yehudah): Only men may lean on their Korbanos, but not women.
ii.(R. Yosi and R. Shimon): Women can lean if they want to.
(b)The Mishnah stated that we encourage children to learn how to blow Shofar.
1.Even on Shabbos, they can do this, as confirmed in a Beraisa:
i.(Beraisa): We encourage the children to learn to blow Shofar, even on Shabbos. We do not prevent them from blowing Shofar on Shabbos, and obviously not on Yom Tov.
2.Question: The first part says it is to be encouraged, but the latter part says it is simply not to be prevented (but not encouraged)!?
3.Answer: The first part deals with a child who has reached Chinuch, and so we have to instruct him in the mitzvah.
(a)The Mishnah stated that one who blows absent-mindedly is not Yotzei.
1.Question: This implies that if he blew it for music, he is Yotzei - does this support Rava's statement to that effect?
2.Answer: The Tana might also be referring to such a person as absent-mindedly blowing.
(b)The Mishnah said that one who hears from someone blowing absentmindedly is not Yotzei.
1.This implies that one who hears from someone blowing only for himself is Yotzei.
2.Question: This contradicts R. Zeira, who instructed his attendant to have him in mind when blowing!?
3.Answer: Perhaps the term "absent-mindedly" is being used only to match the previous ruling (but this case would have the same law).
5)MISHNAH: THE SHOFAR BLASTS
(a)The order of the Shofar blasts is three sets of three (Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah).
(b)A Teki'ah is the length of three Teru'os and a Teru'ah is the length of three whimpers.
(c)If he blew the last Teki'ah of a set as the length of two, it only counts as one.
(d)If one said Musaf and only then gained access to a Shofar, he should blow Teki'ah-Teru'ah-Teki'ah three times.
(e)Just as the Shali'ach Tzibur must say the prayer, so too must every individual.
(f)(R. Gamliel): The Shali'ach Tzibur is Yotzei for them.
6)THE LENGTH OF THE TEKI'AH
(a)Question: The Mishnah stated that a Teki'ah is the length of three Teru'os, but a Beraisa says that it is the same length?
(b)Answer: Our Mishnah is counting the total number of Teki'os and Teru'os, whereas the Beraisa counts only those of one set.
(c)Question: The Mishnah stated that a Teru'ah is the length of three whimpers, but a Beraisa says that a Teru'ah is the length of three Shevarim?
(d)Answer: This is a disagreement, based on the meaning of the word Yevava, the Aramaic translation of Teru'ah, which is used to describe the crying of Sisera's mother; the Mishnah holds that it means whimpers, the Beraisa holds that it means moanings.
7)THE FORM AND MAKE-UP OF THE BLASTS
(a)Question: How do we know that the Teru'ah of Rosh Hashanah must be sounded with a Shofar?
(b)Answer: The Pasuk says "ve'Haavarta Shofar Teru'ah."
(c)Question: That is referring to Yom Kipur of Yovel - how do we know that it is also true for Rosh Hashanah?
(d)Answer: The Torah has a superfluous mention of "the seventh month" to tell us that all the Teru'os of the seventh month should be the same, sounded with a Shofar.
(e)Question: How do we know that a Teki'ah should precede the Teru'ah?
(f)Answer: The word "ve'Haavarta," preceding "Teru'ah," refers to the straight blast of the Teki'ah.
(g)Question: How do we know that a Teki'ah should follow the Teru'ah?
(h)Answer: The word "Teru'ah" is followed by the word "Taaviru" referring to a Teki'ah.
(i)Question: That is referring to Yom Kipur of Yovel - how do we know that it is also true for Rosh Hashanah?
(j)Answer: The Torah has a superfluous mention of "the seventh month" to tell us that all the Teru'os of the seventh month should be the same, sounded with a Shofar.