PESACHIM 2-5 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the sixth Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rebbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study, which was so important to him, during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[2a - 35 lines; 2b - 46 lines]


(a) Aside from the negative commandment which prohibits the *eating* of Chametz or Se'or (a leavening agent made from hardened Chametz) on Pesach, two negative commandments regulate the owning of Chametz or Se'or during Pesach. These are "Bal Yera'eh" -- a commandment which prohibits one from allowing Chametz or Se'or to be seen in his possession, and "Bal Yimatzei" -- a commandment which prohibits one from allowing Chametz or Se'or to be found in his possession.

(b) The prohibition of Bal Yera'eh is learned from the Pasuk, "Lo Yera'eh Lecha Chametz v'Lo Yera'eh Lecha Se'or b'Chol Gevulecha" -- "Chametz shall not be seen by you, and Se'or shall not be seen by you, in all of your boundaries" (Shemos 13:7). The Rishonim discuss whether this prohibition applies only to Chametz or Se'or which is actually seen, or whether it applies even to Chametz or Se'or which *could* be seen (see Minchas Chinuch 20:1).

(c) The prohibition of Bal Yimatzei is learned from the Pasuk, "Shiv'as Yamim Se'or Lo Yimatzei b'Vateichem" -- "[For] seven days Se'or shall not be found in your houses" (Shemos 12:19). The Gemara teaches that this verse does not mean merely that Se'or should not be found in one's house, but rather that it should not be in one's general possession, whether it is in his house or not. Furthermore, this prohibition applies not only to Se'or, but to all Chametz. One who keeps Chametz or Se'or in his possession over Pesach transgresses this prohibition even if the Chametz or Se'or is hidden away.

(d) The commentators discuss whether these prohibitions take effect at midday on Erev Pesach or whether they take effect only with the arrival of Pesach itself (see Insights to Pesachim 4:1). These prohibitions end as soon as Pesach departs.

(e) According to Torah law, before Pesach begins one may remove Chametz or Se'or from his possession through "Bitul," in which a person declares that he considers any Chametz or Se'or in his possession to be worthless (Pesachim 4b; see Insights to Pesachim 6:2). According to most opinions, one may even nullify Chametz or Se'or which he is aware of and which is in his possession. However, the Chachamim decreed that one may not rely on Bitul alone to remove known Chametz from his possession. They required one to perform Bedikas Chametz -- a search for Chametz on the night before the fourteenth of Nisan (Mishnah, Pesachim 2a). According to the letter of the law, Bitul is not necessary after one has performed Bedikas Chametz. However, the widespread practice is first to search for and dispose of all known Chametz as per the Mitzvah d'Rabanan, and afterwards to declare one's intent to be Mevatel any Chametz that might be left in his possession of which he is unaware.

(f) The Rishonim discuss whether Bedikas Chametz was instituted in order to prevent one from transgressing the prohibitions of Bal Yera'eh and Bal Yimatzei, or if the purpose of this institution is to prevent one from eating Chametz that he might find on Pesach (see Insights to Pesachim 2:2).

2)[line 4]במרתףMARTEF- a wine cellar

3)[line 8]נגהיNAGHEI- dawn

4)[line 11]"הבקר אור...""HA'BOKER OR..."- "As [soon as] day broke, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys." (Bereishis 44:3)

5)[line 11]מי כתיב האור בקר?MI KSIV HA'OR BOKER?- does it say, "the 'Or' was morning"?

6)[line 13]צפרא נהרTZAFRA NEHAR- morning dawned

7)[line 15]בכי טובB'CHI TOV- when it is light (in Bereishis 1:4, HaSh-m saw that the light which He had just created was good -- "Ki Tov")

8)[line 16]"וכאור בקר...""U'CH'OR BOKER..."- "And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun rises, in a morning without clouds..." (Shmuel II 23:4)

9)[line 18]וכאור בקר בעולם הזה כעין זריחת שמש לצדיקים לעולם הבאU'CH'OR BOKER BA'OLAM HA'ZEH, K'EIN ZERICHAS SHEMESH LA'TZADIKIM LA'OLAM HA'BA- (lit. And as the light of morning in this world, so will be the light of the sun for the righteous in the World to Come.) (a) the light of dawn for the righteous in the World to Come will be as bright as the light of sunrise in this world (RASHI); (b) the light of sunrise for the righteous in the World to Come will be as bright as the light of noon* in this world (TOSFOS)

10)[line 23]למאיר ובא קראו יוםL'ME'IR U'VA KARA'O YOM- [HaSh-m] referred to the time from which it begins to become light as day

11a)[line 24]קרייה רחמנא לנהוראKARYEI RACHMANA L'NEHORA- HaSh-m called to the [creation of] light

b)[line 25]ופקדיה אמצותא דיממאU'FAKDEI A'MITZVESA D'YEMAMA- and commanded it to serve during the day

12)[line 30]שבוחיSHEVUCHEI- to praise [HaSh-m]

13)[line 33]לנודר מן האורL'NODER MIN HA'OR- for one who has vowed [not to derive pleasure] from light

14)[line 34]"לאור יקום""LA'OR YAKUM..."- "The murderer rising with the light kills the poor and needy, and in the night he is like a thief." (Iyov 24:14)


15)[line 2]אי פשיטא לך מילתא כנהוראIY PESHITA LECHA MILSA K'NEHORA- if it is as clear to you as day

16)[line 6]"יחשכו כוכבי נשפו...""YECHSHECHU KOCHVEI NISHPO..."- "Let the stars of its dusk be darkened; let it look for light yet have none; and let it not see the glimmer of the morning." (Iyov 3:9)

17)[line 8]מילט הוא דקא לייטMEILAT HU D'KA LAYIT- he was cursing

18)[line 10]יהא רעוא דליצפיה הך גבראYEHEI RA'AVA D'LITZPEI HACH GAVRA- would only that this person (himself, Iyov) should have looked forward (hoped) [for the light (after birth)]

19)[line 10]ולא לישכחיהV'LO LISHKECHEI- and he should not have found it

20)[line 11]"ואומר...""VA'OMAR..."- "If I say, 'Surely only darkness shall cover me; and the night shall be like a veil around me.'" (Tehilim 139:11) - This translation follows Rashi to Tehilim. According to the understanding of the Gemara at this point, the verse reads, "And I said, 'Surely only darkness shall cover me; yet the night became as day around me.'"

21)[line 18]ובשעת הביעורSHE'AS HA'BI'UR (CHAMETZ: BI'UR CHAMETZ)

(a)There is a positive commandment to destroy Chametz before Pesach begins. The Torah states, "Ach ba'Yom ha'Rishon Tashbisu Se'or mi'Bateichem" -- "However, on the first day you must destroy all leaven from your houses" (Shemos 12:15). The Gemara (5a) explains that "ba'Yom ha'Rishon" ("the first day") does not refer to the first day of Pesach, but rather to midday of the day before Pesach.

(b)Although it is forbidden to eat Chametz from midday of Erev Pesach according to Torah law, the Chachamim enacted a prohibition against eating Chametz from before then, since it is difficult to ascertain at which point precisely midday occurs. Rebbi Meir is of the opinion that one may eat Chametz up until the end of the fifth hour (the hour beginning with ten o'clock and ending at eleven o'clock of a day which is perfectly split between day and night and begins at six o'clock), and he must then burn the Chametz at the beginning of the sixth hour. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that one may eat Chametz only until the end of the fourth hour; during the fifth hour one may not eat Chametz, but neither must one burn it; and he must then burn the Chametz at the beginning of the sixth hour (Mishnah 11b).

(c)There is a Machlokes Tana'im as to how one should destroy Chametz. Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that one must specifically burn Chametz in order to destroy it. The Chachamim disagree and maintain that one may rid himself of Chametz in any fashion he chooses, such as by breaking it up and throwing it to the wind or into the sea. (Mishnah 21a)

22)[line 21]אסור בעשיית מלאכהASUR BA'SIYAS MELACHAH- forbidden to perform Melachah. (a) This Tosefta gives guidelines for those who have the custom not to perform Melachah on Erev Pesach (see Daf 50a; RASHI). (b) These Tana'im are of the opinion that there is a Rabbinic prohibition to perform Melachah on Erev Pesach (TOSFOS)

23)[line 23]הנץ החמהHA'NETZ HA'CHAMAH- sunrise

24)[line 31]עמוד השחרAMUD HA'SHACHAR- dawn

25)[line 37]קרות הגברKEROS HA'GEVER- the crowing of the rooster (a time earlier than dawn)

26)[line 42]שעות דרבנןSHA'OS D'RABANAN- [Rebbi Yehudah is proving his point from] the hours during which the Chachamim [additionally] prohibited [the eating of Chametz] (see above, entry #21)

27)[line 43]משיאין משואותMASI'IN MASU'OS- [the messengers of Beis Din] lifted lighted torches [on the mountaintops, in order to communicate to the outlying communities that Beis Din had accepted witnesses who testified that the new moon had been seen, and that it was therefore Rosh Chodesh]

28)[line 44]בזמנוBI'ZEMANO- in its time; that is, the night following the twenty-ninth day of the month

29)[line 44]לאור עבורוL'OR IBURO- lit. the night of its addition; the night following the first day of the new month, which would have been the night of the thirtieth day added to the previous month had the new month not been proclaimed on that day

30)[last line]קידוש ידים ורגליםKIDUSH YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM

(a)It is a Mitzvas Aseh for the Kohanim to wash their hands and feet whenever they enter the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash or before they perform any Avodah (Divine service), as it states in Shemos 30:19, "v'Rachatzu Aharon u'Vanav Mimenu...."

(b)The manner of washing is as follows: The Kohen bends down and places his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot. A different Kohen sprinkles water from the Kiyor on his hands and feet. (If he is alone, he places his hands and feet under the faucet of the Kiyor). Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is an Avodah and therefore must be performed while standing. If a Kohen intentionally performs an Avodah without washing his hands and feet, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and the Avodah is invalid. (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #106)

(c)A Kohen need not wash his hands and feet more than once a day, as long as he makes certain that they do not become Teme'im or dirty, and as long as he has not left the Azarah. There is a disagreement as to whether or not a Kohen who spent the entire night performing Avodah must wash his hands and feet again in the morning.