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1. The Mishnah discusses the third and fourth lotteries of the day.
2. The Gemara explains why no Kohen was permitted to offer the Ketores twice.
3. If one sees a Rabbi whose Halachic rulings are followed, one may assume that he is from the tribe of Levi or Yissachar.
4. The winner of the lottery to have a part in the morning Korban Tamid would perform that same service for the afternoon Tamid.
5. However, there were two separate lotteries to determine who would offer the morning and afternoon Ketores.
A BIT MORE
1. The third lottery was for Kohanim who had never offered the Ketores (incense). The fourth was for Kohanim who wanted to bring the limbs of the Korban Tamid from the ramp to the Mizbe'ach (participation was open even to those who had done so previously).
2. The Ketores was known for making the one who offered it wealthy. Everyone was given a chance to do it once, and there was always a demand to offer it from Kohanim who had not yet done so.
3. There were exceptions to this rule, such as David ha'Melech who issued accurate Halachic rulings. In general, though, people who issue accurate Halachic rulings are from Levi or Yissachar (as indicated by the verse that teaches that they inherently have such capability).
4. The exception to this rule was on Shabbos, as the Kohanim would change shifts at midday. Accordingly, the new shift would make a new lottery to determine who would offer the afternoon Korban Tamid.
5. As mentioned earlier, this was because everyone was entitled to do it once, to ensure that everyone had a chance to become wealthy. However, if every Kohen present that morning had already performed the service of the Ketores, the one who won the lottery in the morning would perform it in the afternoon as well.
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