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BERACHOS 25 (8 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Esther Miryam bas Harav Chaim Zev and her husband Harav Refael Yisrael ben Harav Moshe (Snow), whose Yahrzeits are 7 Elul and 8 Elul respectively. Sponsored by their son and daughter in law, Moshe and Rivka Snow.
(Purim) Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas HaRav Ze'ev Wolf Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, a person of "Sheleimus" in every way, who passed away on 14 Adar 5760. Dedicated in honor of his Yahrzeit by his nephew and Talmid, Eli Rosengarten of Zurich.


1. There is a dispute about whether one may recite Shema if there is excrement on his body.
2. There is a dispute about reciting Shema in an area where there is a bad smell from extant excrement.
3. One is allowed to learn Torah, but not say Shema, in the presence of the odor of his friend's flatulence.
4. One may not recite Shema while facing Ervah, even if a panel of glass separates him from it.
5. One may not recite Shema while facing a toilet or a child's potty.


1. Rav Huna: It is permitted (if the excrement is covered by clothing or by folds of his body). Rav Chisda: It is forbidden.
2. Rav Huna: One should distance himself four Amos from the excrement and then he may recite Shema, even though he still smells excrement. Rav Chisda: One must distance himself four Amos from the area that smells in order to say Shema.
3. This applies only in the case of a bad odor that has no solid source, as opposed to an odor that comes from excrement.
4. The laws of Ervah apply not only to the Ervah of a Jewess, but also to the Ervah of a Nochris.
5. This applies even when they do not presently contain excrement.

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